<strong>Common</strong> <strong>Core</strong> <strong>Algebra</strong> 1 <strong>Standards</strong> Number and Quantity The Real Number System (RN) Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents N.RN.1 – Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5 1/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (5 1/3 ) 3 = 5 (1/3)3 to hold, so (5 1/3 ) 3 must equal 5. N.RN.2 – Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. Use properties of rational and irrational numbers. N.RN.3 – Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. Quantities (Q) Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. N.Q.2: Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. N.Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. <strong>Algebra</strong> Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Functions (APR) Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials A.APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add subtract and multiply polynomials. Seeing Structure in Expressions (SSE) Interpret the structure of expressions A-SSE.1 Interpret parts of an expression that represent a quantity in terms of its context. a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r) n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. A.SSE.2 – Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x 4 – y 4 as (x 2 ) 2 – (y 2 ) 2 , thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x 2 – y 2 )(x 2 + y 2 ). Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems A-SSE.3: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. a: Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines. b: Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines. c. Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15 t can be rewritten as (1.151/12) 12t ≈ 1.01212 t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Creating Equations (CED) Create equations that describe numbers or relationships A-CED.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions A-CED.2: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-CED.3: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods A-CED.4: Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities (REI) Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning A-REI.1: Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. Solve equations and inequalities in one variable A-REI.3: Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. A-REI.4: Solve quadratic equations in one variable. a. Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p) 2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form. b. Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x 2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a °” bi for real numbers a and b. Solve systems of equations A-REI.5: Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. A-REI.6: Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. A-REI.7: Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle x 2 + y 2 = 3 Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically A-REI.10: Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). A-REI.11: Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.★ A-REI.12: Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes. Functions Interpreting Functions (IF) Understand the concept of a function and use function notation F.IF.1: Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). F.IF.2: Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. F.IF.3: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1.