Matrices – System of Linear Equations (Part 1) | Don’t Memorise
Matrices – System of Linear Equations (Part 1) | Don’t Memorise

Analytical Methods of Voltage Stability in Renewable Dominated Power Systems: A Review

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## 1. Introduction

• Investigate the analysis and verification of voltage stability studies based on different renewable energy generation types;
• Classify and compare voltage stability analysis methods based on different microgrid operation modes and types of DGs; and
• Evaluate voltage stability techniques and conduct a simulation verification to demonstrate the most suitable simulation platform with different microgrid settings.

## 2. Voltage Stability Methods of Analysis

#### 2.1.1. Continuation Load Flow Method Using P–V and V–Q Curves

2.1.2. Modal Analysis of the Jacobian Matrix Based on V–Q Sensitivity

## 4. Verification Case Studies for the Voltage Stability Analysis

4.1. Analysis and Verification Case Studies with Integrated PV Generation Only

4.2. Analysis and Verification Case Studies with Integrated Wind Generation Only

#### 4.3. Analysis and Verification Cases with Hybrid Distributed Generation

• When a sampling method uses the standard error of the mean (SEM), the fitting probability ratio may be negative, while sampling methods using CMEM have greater effectiveness and accuracy;
• The computational speed of the method based on CMEM is significantly higher than that of the Monte Carlo method, resulting in a time saving of 99.95%;
• The higher the penetration rate of renewable energy, the greater the load margin fluctuation, leading to a more unstable system;
• As the correlation degree of external weather factors, such as the wind speed and solar irradiation rate, increases, the mean value of the load margin is almost unchanged, but the fluctuation degree increases.

#### 4.4. Examples of Simulation Validation under Different Scenarios

• The model works under the critical state.
• A two-node power system model with a 90-degree initial voltage angle for a flat start;
• A 1900 MW pure active load connected at the receiving end of the power system.
• Bus 8–9 outage;
• G3 outage;

## 5. Conclusions

• Systematic development of dynamic voltage stability analysis methods: Although several dynamic methods to evaluate the voltage profile of a system are available, additional work needs to be performed to improve their accuracy and efficacy levels.
• Online real-time techniques for assessing the state of the system’s voltage and the threshold of instability: It can be anticipated that power systems can be further optimized in an efficient and timely manner if the voltage collapse is detected at an early stage.
• Coping with increasing asynchronous generation from renewables: The increasing complexity of the network due to the higher level of renewable penetration may lead to more stability issues. Increasing the integration of DGs may exponentially increase the risk of large disturbance instability. Therefore, it may become important to coordinate the expanding asynchronous power supplies with the current synchronous generation.

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 Operation Mode Type of DG(s) References Grid-Connected PV [43,78,88,90,97,98] Wind [5,54,74,84,85,89,94,96] PV, Wind [70,79,80,83,92] PV, Hydro [75] PV, Wind, Hydro [86] Islanded PV [60] Wind [81] PV, Wind [34,82]
 Voltage Stability Index Formulation Calculation Runtime (Units) Index 2003 0.8171 Index 2014 0.8172 Novel Index 0.7997
 Voltage Stability Analysis Method Simulation Result L-index method This method requires the least amount of calculation and has a good level of consistency with most other methods. Modal analysis The method is most suitable for determining the strongest and weakest buses in the system. V–Q sensitivity analysis This scheme has difficulty distinguishing different stability modes in the system and may be misleading when applied to large systems with multiple regions. Power flow based methods Too many system parameters are considered in the calculation, and the accuracy is relatively low. Dynamic voltage stability analysis Cannot accurately calculate the stability margin for each bus. Overlapped time-domain actions in the interconnected networks may exist, leading to the wrong analysis result.
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