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1 Introduction: The Nature Of Science And Physics2 Kinematics3 Two-dimensional Kinematics4 Dynamics: Force And Newton’s Laws Of Motion5 Further Applications Of Newton’s Laws: Friction, Drag, And Elasticity6 Uniform Circular Motion And Gravitation7 Work, Energy, And Energy Resources8 Linear Momentum And Collisions9 Statics And Torque10 Rotational Motion And Angular Momentum11 Fluid Statics12 Fluid Dynamics And Its Biological And Medical Applications13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, And The Gas Laws14 Heat And Heat Transfer Methods15 Thermodynamics16 Oscillatory Motion And Waves17 Physics Of Hearing18 Electric Charge And Electric Field19 Electric Potential And Electric Field20 Electric Current, Resistance, And Ohm’s Law21 Circuits And Dc Instruments22 Magnetism23 Electromagnetic Induction, Ac Circuits, And Electrical Technologies24 Electromagnetic Waves25 Geometric Optics26 Vision And Optical Instruments27 Wave Optics28 Special Relativity29 Introduction To Quantum Physics30 Atomic Physics31 Radioactivity And Nuclear Physics32 Medical Applications Of Nuclear Physics33 Particle Physics34 Frontiers Of Physics
Problem 1CQ: Using the law of reflection, explain how powder takes the shine off of a person’s nose. What is the…Problem 2CQ: Diffusion by reflection from a rough surface is described in this chapter. Light can also be…Problem 3CQ: Why is the index of refraction always greater than or equal to 1?Problem 4CQ: Does the fact that the light flash from lightning teaches you before its sound prove that the speed…Problem 5CQ: Will light change direction toward or away from the perpendicular when it goes from air to water?…Problem 6CQ: Explain why an object in water always appears to be at a depth shallower than it actually is? Why do…Problem 7CQ: Explain why a person’s legs appeal very short when wading in a pool. Justify your explanation with a…Problem 8CQ: Why is the front surface of a thermometer curved as shown? Figure 25.47 The curved surface of the…Problem 9CQ: Suppose light were incident from air onto a material that had a negative index at retraction, say…Problem 10CQ: A ring with a colorless gemstone is dropped into water. The gemstone becomes invisible when…Problem 11CQ: A high-quality diamond may be quite clear and colorless, transmitting all visible wavelengths with…Problem 12CQ: Is it possible that total internal reflection plays a role in rainbows? Explain in terms of indices…Problem 13CQ: The most common type at mirage is an illusion that light from faraway objects is reflected by a pool…Problem 14CQ: It can he argued that a flat piece of glass, such as in a window, is like a lens with an infinite…Problem 15CQ: You can often see a reflection when looking at a sheet of glass, particularly if it is darker on the…Problem 16CQ: When you focus a camera, you adjust the distance of the lens from the film. It the camera lens acts…Problem 17CQ: A thin lens has two focal points, one on either side, at equal distances from its center, and should…Problem 18CQ: Will the focal length of a lens change when it is submerged in water? Explain.Problem 19CQ: What are the differences between teal and virtual images? How can you tell (by looking) whether an…Problem 20CQ: Can you see a virtual image? Can you photograph one? Can one be projected onto a screen with…Problem 21CQ: Is it necessary to project a real image onto a screen for it to exist?Problem 22CQ: At what distance is an image always locatedat do, di, or f?Problem 23CQ: Under what circumstances will an image be located at the local point of a lens or mirror?Problem 24CQ: What is meant by a negative magnification? What is meant by a magnification that is less than 1 in…Problem 25CQ: Can a case 1 image be larger than the object even though its magnification is always negative?…Problem 26CQ: Figure 25.49 shows a light bulb between two mirrors. One minor produces a beam at light with…Problem 27CQ: Devise an arrangement of mirrors allowing you to see the back of your head. What is the minimum…Problem 28CQ: If you wish to see your entire body in a flat minor (from head to toe), how tall should the minor…Problem 29CQ: It can be argued than a flat mirror has an in?nite focal leng1h. If so, where does it from an image?…Problem 30CQ: Why are diverging mirrors often used for rear-view mirrors in vehicles? What is the main…Problem 1PE: Suppose a man stands in front of a mirror as shown in Figure 25.50. His eyes are 1.65 m above the…Problem 2PE: Show that when light reflects from two mirrors that meet each other at a right angle, the outgoing…Problem 3PE: Light shows staged with lasers use moving mirrors to swing beams and create colorful effects. Show…Problem 4PE: A flat minor is neither converging nor diverging. To prove this, consider two rays originating from…Problem 5PE: What is the speed of light in water? In glycerine?Problem 6PE: What is the speed of light in air? In crown glass?Problem 7PE: Calculate the index of refraction for a medium in which the speed of light is 2.012108m/s , and…Problem 8PE: In what substance in Table 25.1 is the speed of light 2.290108m/s ?Problem 9PE: There was a major collision of an asteroid with the Moon in medieval times. It was described by…Problem 10PE: A scuba diver training in a pool looks at his instructor as shown in Figure 25.53. What angle does…Problem 11PE: Components of some computers communicate with each other through optical fibers having an index of…Problem 12PE: (a) Using information in Figure 25.53, find the height of the instructor’s head above the water,…Problem 13PE: Suppose you have an unknown clear substance immersed in water, and you wish to identify it by…Problem 14PE: On the Moon’s surface, lunar astronauts placed a corner reflector, off which a laser beam is…Problem 15PE: Suppose Figure 25.54 represents a ray of light going from air through crown glass into waist, such…Problem 16PE: Figure 25.54 shows a ray of light passing from one medium into a second and then a third. Show that…Problem 17PE: Unreasonable Results Suppose light travels from water to another substance, with an angle of…Problem 18PE: Construct Your Own Problem Consider sunlight entering the Earth’s atmosphere at sunrise and…Problem 19PE: Unreasonable Results Light traveling from water to a gemstone strikes the surface at an angle of…Problem 20PE: Verify that the critical angle for light going from water to air is 48.6°, as discussed at the end…Problem 21PE: (a) At the end of Example 25.4, it was stated that the critical angle for light going from diamond…Problem 22PE: An optical fiber uses flint glass clad with crown glass. What is the critical angle?Problem 23PE: At what minimum angle will you get total internal reflection of light traveling in water and…Problem 24PE: Suppose you are using total internal reflection to make an efficient corner reflector. If there is…Problem 25PE: You can determine me index of refraction of a substance by determining its critical angle. (a) What…Problem 26PE: A ray of light, emitted beneath the surface of an unknown liquid with air above it, undergoes total…Problem 27PE: A light ray entering an optical fiber surrounded by air is first refracted and then reflected as…Problem 28PE: (a) What is me ratio of the speed of red light to violet light in diamond, based on Table 25.2? (b)…Problem 29PE: A beam of white light goes from air into water at an incident angle of 75.0°. At what angles are the…Problem 30PE: By how much do the critical angles for red (660 nm) and violet (410 nm) light differ in a diamond…Problem 31PE: (a) A narrow beam of light containing yellow (580 nm) and green (550 nm} wavelengths goes from…Problem 32PE: A parallel beam of light containing orange (610 nm) and violet (410 nm) wavelengths goes from fused…Problem 33PE: A ray of 610 nm light goes from air into fused quartz at an incident angle of 55.0°. At what…Problem 34PE: A narrow beam of light containing red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelengths travels from air…Problem 35PE: A narrow beam of white light enters a prism made of crown glass at a 45.0° incident angle, as shown…Problem 36PE: What is the power in diopters at a camera lens that has a 50.0 mm focal length?Problem 37PE: Your camera’s zoom lens has an adjustable focal leng1h ranging from 80.0 to 200 mm. What is its…Problem 38PE: What is the focal length of 1.75 D reading glasses found on the rack in a pharmacy?Problem 39PE: You note that your prescription for new eyeglasses is 4.50 D. What will their focal leng1h be?Problem 40PE: How far from the lens must the film in a camera be, if the lens has a 35.0 mm local length and is…Problem 41PE: A certain slide projector has a 100 mm focal length lens. (a) How far away is the screen, if a slide…Problem 42PE: A doctor examines a mole with a 15.0 cm focal length magnifying glass held 13.5 cm from the mole (a)…Problem 43PE: How far from a piece of paper must you hold your father’s 2.25 D reading glasses to try to burn a…Problem 44PE: A camera with a 50.0 mm focal length lens is being used to photograph a person standing 3.00 m away….Problem 45PE: A camera lens used for taking close-up photographs has a focal length of 22.0 mm. The farthest it…Problem 46PE: Suppose your 50.00 mm local length camera lens is 51.0 mm away from the film in the camera. (a) How…Problem 47PE: (a) What is the focal length of a magnifying glass that produces a magnification of 3.00 when held…Problem 48PE: What magnification will be produced by a lens of power 4.00 D (such as might be used to correct…Problem 49PE: In Example 25.7, the magnification of a book held 7.50 cm from a 10.0 cm focal length lens was found…Problem 50PE: Suppose a 200 mm focal length telephoto lens is being used to photograph mountains 10.0 km away. (a)…Problem 51PE: A camera with a 100 mm focal length lens is used to photograph the sun and mean. What is the height…Problem 52PE: Combine thin lens equations to show that the magnification for a mm lens is determined by its focal…Problem 53PE: What is the focal length of a makeup mirror that has a power of 1.50 D?Problem 54PE: Some telephoto cameras use a mirror rather than a lens. What radius of curvature mirror is needed to…Problem 55PE: (a) Calculate the focal length of the mirror formed by the shiny back of a spoon that has a 3.00 cm…Problem 56PE: Find the magnification of the heater element in Example 25.9. Note that its large magnitude helps…Problem 57PE: What is the focal length of a makeup mirror that produces a magnification of 1.50 when a person’s…Problem 58PE: A shopper standing 3.00 m from a convex security minor sees his image with a magnification of 0.250….Problem 59PE: An object 1.50 cm high is held 3.00 cm from a person’s cornea, and its reflected image is measured…Problem 60PE: Ray tracing for a flat mirror shows that the image is located a distance behind the mirror equal to…Problem 61PE: Show that for a flat mirror hi= ho, knowing that the image is a distance behind the mirror equal in…Problem 62PE: Use the law of reflection to prove that the focal length of a mirror is hall its radius of…Problem 63PE: Referring to the electric room heater considered in the first example in this section, calculate the…Problem 64PE: Consider a 250-W heat lamp fixed to the ceiling in a bathroom. If the filament in one light burns…
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