AP

®

PHYSICS 2 TABLE OF INFORMATION

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Proton mass,

27

1.6710 kg

p

m

–

= ¥

Neutron mass,

27

1.6710 kg

n

m

–

= ¥

Electron mass,

31

9.1110 kg

e

m

–

= ¥

Avogadro’s number,

23-10

6.0210 mol

N

= ¥

Universal gas constant,8.31 J(molK)

R

=

i

Boltzmann’s constant,

23

1.3810JK

B

k

–

= ¥

Electron charge magnitude,

19

1.6010 C

e

–

= ¥

1 electron volt,

19

1 eV1.6010 J

–

= ¥

Speed of light,

8

3.0010 ms

c

= ¥

Universal gravitational constant,

1132

6.6710 mkgs

G

–

= ¥

i

Acceleration due to gravityat Earth’s surface,

2

9.8 ms

g

=

1 unified atomic mass unit,

272

1 u1.6610 kg931 MeV

c

–

= ¥ =

–

Planck’s constant,

3415

6.6310 Js4.1410 eVs

h

–

= ¥ = ¥

i

253

1.9910 Jm1.2410 eVnm

hc

–

= ¥ = ¥

i

Vacuum permittivity,

12220

8.8510CNm

e

–

= ¥

i

Coulomb’s law constant,

920

149.010 NmC

k

pe

= = ¥

i

AVacuum permeability,

70

410 (Tm)

m p

–

= ¥

i

Magnetic constant,

70

4110 (Tm)

k

m p

–

= = ¥¢

i

5

1 atmosphere pressure,

52

1 atm1.010 Nm1.010 Pa

= ¥ = ¥

UNIT SYMBOLS meter, m kilogram,kgsecond,sampere,Akelvin,Kmole, mol hertz,Hznewton,Npascal,Pa joule,Jwatt, W coulomb,Cvolt,Vohm,henry,Hfarad, F tesla, T degree Celsius,

C

∞

W

electron volt, eV

2

A

ii

PREFIXES Factor Prefix Symbol

10

12

tera T

10

9

giga G

10

6

mega M

10

3

kilo k

10

–

2

centi c

10

–

3

milli m

10

–

6

micro

m

10

–

9

nano n

10

–

12

pico p VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

q

0

30

37

45

53

60

90

sin

q

0 12 35

22

45

32

1

cos

q

1

32

45

22

35 12 0

tan

q

0

33

34 1 43

3

•

The following conventions are used in this exam. I. The frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial unless otherwise stated. II. In all situations, positive work is defined as work doneona system. III. The direction of current is conventional current: the direction in whichpositive charge would drift. IV. Assume all batteries and meters are ideal unless otherwise stated. V. Assume edge effects for the electric field of a parallel plate capacitorunless otherwise stated. VI. For any isolated electrically charged object, the electric potential is defined as zero at infinite distance from the charged object.

AP

®

PHYSICS 2

EQUATIONS

MECHANICS

a

= acceleration

d

= distance

E

= energy

F

= force

f

= frequency

h

= height

I

= rotational inertia

K

= kinetic energy

k

= spring constant

L

= angular momentum

= length

m

= mass

P

= power

p

= momentum

r

= radius or separation

T

= period

t

= time

U

= potential energy

v

= speed

W

= work done on a system

x

= position

a

= angular acceleration

m

= coefficient of friction

q

= angle

t

= torque

w

= angular speed

0

xx

at

Ã Ã

= +

x

200

12

xx

xxta

Ã

= + +

t

0

(

220

2

xxx

axx

Ã Ã

= + –

)

net

F F am

= =

Â

m

fn

F

m

£

F

2

c

ar

Ã

=

pmv

=

pFt

D

=

D

2

12

K mv

=

cos

EWFdFd

q

D

= = =

E Pt

DD

=

200

12

t

q q w a

= + +

t

0

t

w w

= +

a

( ) ( )

coscos2

xAtAf

w

= =

p

t

iicmi

mx x m

=

ÂÂ

net

II

t t a

= =

Â

sin

rFrF

t q

= =

^

LI

w

=

Lt

t

D D

=

2

12

KI

w

=

s

Fk

=

x

2

12

s

Uk

=

x

y

g

Umg

D

=

D

2

T f

p w

= =

1

2

s

mT k

p

=

2

p

T g

p

=

122

g

mmFGr

=

g

F gm

=

12

G

GmmU r

= –

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

A

= area

B

= magnetic field

C

= capacitance

d

= distance

E

= electric field

e

=

emf

F

= force

I

= current

= length

P

= power

Q

= charge

q

= point charge

R

= resistance

r

= separation

t

= time

U

= potential (stored)

energy

V

= electric potential

v

= speed

r

= resistivity

q

= angle

F

= flux

1220

14

E

qqF r

pe

=

E

F E q

=

20

14

q E r

pe

=

E

Uq

D

=

D

V

0

14

qV r

pe

=

V E r

DD

=

QV C

D

=

0

AC d

ke

=

0

Q E A

e

=

(

2

122

C

UQVC

D

= =

1

)

V

D

Q I t

DD

=

R A

r

=

PI

D

=

V

V I R

D

=

sii

RR

=

Â

11

pii

RR

=

Â

pii

CC

=

Â

1

si

CC

=

Â

1

i

0

2

I Br

m p

=

M

Fqv

= ¥

B

sin

M

Fqv

q

=

B

M

FI

= ¥

B

sin

M

FI

q

=

B

B

BA

F

=

i

cos

B

BA

q

F

=

B

t

e

DFD

= –

Bv

e

=

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