APUSH Period 5: Ultimate Guide to Period 5 Key Concept 5.1
APUSH Period 5: Ultimate Guide to Period 5 Key Concept 5.1

Preceden

  • Use Cases
  • Resources
  • Pricing

1600 – 1776

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Aztecs- Made bloody sacrifices to the gods, Conquered by Cortes, established and grand. Lived off maize, and had cities and commerce. Huge temples. Moctezuma thought Cortes was Quetzelcoatl. march to tecnochilan.

Incas- Conquered by Pizarro. Also very developed in agriculture and had cities and commerce.

Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee- lived off corn, beans, squash

Anasazi- elaborate pueblos

Powhatan- Pocahontas’s tribe. In 1614 the Anglo- Powhatan war ended with the marriage of Pocohontas to John Wolfe. The 2nd war, they lost. 1646 peace treaty banished Indians from that land. (In the Chesapeake Bay area).

Algonquians- bolstered population and handled euros w strength

Savannah Indians- want to get religious freedom in Quaker colony but were killed thinned) by Carolina.

Iroquois- Hiawatha founded this confederacy.

Tuscarara and Yamasee- killed by the North Carolinians

Pequot War- they were annihilated

Pope’s Rebellion- pueblo rebels destroyed every catholic church and killed priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers.

Metacom- (king Philip) in 1675 forged an English attack and an Indian alliance, 52 towns attacked, 12 destroyed, he’s beheaded.

Wampanoags- Thanksgiving Indians (Squanto), son was Metacom

*Nathanial Bacon was mad that Berkley wouldn’t harm indians, so Bacon’s Rebellion ensued.
*Chesapeaks loved to fight indians for tobacco land

*Pennslyvania started w good relations

*1620, English killed more than 3/4 of native people

*most were gone by 1720 (except Iroquois, Creek and Cherokee)

*many became slaves in west indies

*HORSES altered emigration onto great plains

*Indian on indian violence over fight for weapons and they failed due to disease, disorganization, and disposability.
*enslaved by econimienda

*Brought syphilis to the Europeans

*Europeans were virtually unaware of the indian tribes

*Many Europeans married indians making a culture bridge (mestizos).

1600 – 1776

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-Ice Age
-tecnological advances in shipbuilding–> caravel developed by portugese
–Dias soon rounded southernmost tip
Vasco Da Gama reached India and returned with jewels and spices
-Spain also became united under Ferdinand and Isabella who wanted to defeat Portugal
Renaissance emerges: printing presses spread scientific knowledge, compass helped sea travel
-Christopher Columbus discovers “Bahamas”
-1500s-Spain became dominant power of exploration
-Balboa discovered Pacific Ocean
-Magellan completed first circumnavigation of globe
-Leon explored Florida
-Coronado discovered Grand Canyon
-Pizarro crushed Incas
-1492 Moorish city of Granada fell after 10 yr siege
-Spanish conquistadors extinguished Great Aztec and Incan empires
-1519 Cortes set sail from Cuba for Mexico and marched to Tenochtitlan
-Cortes laid siege to city and Aztec empire was destroyed
John Cabot to explore Northeastern coast of North America
-Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore eastern seaboard
-Frenchman Jacques Cartier, voyaged up St. Lawrence river
–new expedition began from Sonora Desert in Mexico into Rio Grande Valley led by Don Juan de Onate→ abused pueblo peoples they encountered
-Indian Uprising=Pope’s Rebellion→ pueblo rebels destroyed every catholic church and killed priests and hundreds of spanish settlers
-Alamo was established
-Junipero Serra founded a chain of 21 missions
Columbian exchange: trade system between new world, old world and africa
Treaty of Tordesillas: spain secured its claim to Columbus’ discovery through this
Encomienda: allowed government to give indians to colonists if they agreed to Christianize them (basically just slavery)
Noche triste: sad night, when aztecs attacked spanish but were defeated
Protestant Reformation emerged in England when Henry VIII broke with catholic church
-Francis drake returned in 1580 with spanish treasure
-Roanoke colony mysteriously vanished
in 1588, spain attacked english channel but england won overall
-nationalism bloomed in golden age of literature
Virginia company of london received charter from King James I for a settlement in the New World
colonists found location on James River and named it Jamestown
Virginia was saved by John Smith→ he met Pocahontas who became an intermediary between indians and settlers hoping to provide food and preserve peace
-peace settlement ended this 1st Anglo-Powhatan War sealed by Pocahontas’ marriage to John Rolfe
-Indians struck back in 1622, attacking settlers → second anglo-powhatan war was called
Peace Treaty of 1646=effectively banished indians from their land, causing the indians to almost become extinct
-House of Burgesses was the 1st miniature parliament
-Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore
Act of Toleration→ guaranteed toleration for all christians but decreed death penalty for those like jews and atheists
-Barbados Slave Code of 1661→ denied fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters all control
settlers from barbados arrive in Carolina 1670
civil war in England (1640s) due to Charles I dismissing Parliament
Charles I was beheaded and Cromwell took over
-Carolina was formally created in 1670
-Pennsylvania was a new colony founded by quakers under William Penn who promised better relations between whites and indians
-North Carolina was officially separated from S. Carolina in 1712
Georgia was founded in 1733
Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe
John Wesley who founded Methodist church
Martin Luther posted 95 Theses
formed called separatists vowed to break away from church
-King James I threatened to kick them out of the land so some departed for Holland
-then they boarded the Mayflower to America with pilgrims and took unauthorized settlement at Plymouth Bay
-signed Mayflower Compact→ agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of majority
next autumn (1621) brought harvests and Thanksgiving Day
Great Migration (1630s) about 70,000 refugees left England and 20,000 of them came to Massachusetts Bay
-John Winthrop became governor of the MB colony
-Anne Hutchinson challenged the Puritan orthodoxy
Roger Williams→ wanted everyone to make clean break from the church of England and also challenged Bay Colony’s charter
-Williams left and built baptist church
Hartford was founded in 1635
-Boston Puritans came to Hartford led by Tomas Hooker
-settlers of connecticut river colony drafted “fundamental orders” and established a regime democratically controlled by citizens
-New Haven was founded by Puritans who wanted church-government alliance in 1638
first major European migration
Maine
-it was separated in 1679 and named a royal colony
pequot war
Metacom (known to the english as king philip) forged an indian alliance and mounted assaults on english villages
colonists banded together to form New England Confederation, essentially an exclusive Puritan club
-consisted of Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven and scattered valley settlements
Glorious Revolution occurred→ william III and mary took throne
-Massachusetts was made royal colony in 1691
Glorious Revolution occurred→ william III and mary took throne
-swedes trespassed the Dutch and planned New Switzerland
William Penn was a head quaker figure who hoped to experiment with liberal ideas in government
-in 1681 he was granted land by king
-this became Pennsylvania, formally launched in 1681
-New Jersey was started in 1664
-East New Jersey was acquired by Quakers and in 1702 it became a royal colony
-Delaware was granted its own assembly in 1703
1676, about 1,000 slaves broke out of control led by Nathaniel Bacon
-when Berkeley refused to harm indians, Bacon and his followers murdered Indians, chased Berkeley from the capital and a civil war emerged
-10 million africans were soon brought to america and filled the population
-wages rose in 1680s
– slave codes
-native born african americans also contributed to slave culture and african-american culture emerged
-a slave revolt in NY (1712) cost the lives of a dozen whites and 21 blacks
-the masters/planters ruled the regions economy and monopolized political power
-african traditions poured into the new world→ rice, languages, music, most became christian
-In New England, family remained at center of life
puritanism made for the unity of purpose and concern for the moral health of the whole community
-in 1636 Puritans established Harvard
– jermiad made
conversions→ testimonials that an individual had received God’s will and should become elect, halfway covenant
-salem witch hunt (1692) → 19 people were hanged and pressed to death
-New England soil was very rocky so any harvest was a success
-this aspect left New England less diverse because no one wanted to immigrate there
animosity between landholders and merchants fueled Leisler’s Rebellion (1689-1691)
-only Philadelphia, New York, Boston and Charleston could be classified as cities
-Germans had fled to Pennsylvania due to religious persecution→ took up about ⅓ of the population
-the Scots Irish took up about 7% of the Pennsylvania population and were actually called Scots Lowlanders
-they led “March of Paxton Boys” on 1769 protesting the quaker’s lenient policy towards indians and later led the “Regulator Movement” in N. Carolina against eastern domination of affairs
-plague of war created a class of widows and orphans who depended on charity
-landholdings were subdivided and the average size of farms shrank drastically
-by 1750, boston contained a large number of homeless poor
-in the south, wealth was in the hands of the largest slave owners
-many indentured servants achieved prosperity and prestige
-1765 first medical school was established
-prescription was introduced in 1721
-in 1730s fast breeding americans demanded more British products
-this trade imbalance raised a question: how could colonists sell the goods to make the money to buy what they wanted in Britain? → by seeking foreign markets
-most important trade was with the West Indies who bought American timber and foodstuffs
-in 1733 Parliament passed “Molasses Act” aimed at squelching this trade- smuggling
-not until 1700s did roads connect with major cities
-taverns were clearinghouses of information/false information and rumor
-intercolonial postal system was formed mid 1700s
-two churches stood out in 1775: Anglican and Congregational
-Great Awakening exploded in 1730s and 1740s
-first started in Massachusett by Jonathan Edwards who believed in salvation through good works
-George Whitefield used a different type of evangelical preaching; his message was on human helplessness and divine omnipotence
“New Light Ministers” defended the awakening for its role of revitalizing american religion
-Benjamin Franklin launched University of Penn. which was the first college free from denominational control
-there was a case with John Peter Zenger that arose in NY because he was charged with seditious libel – led to freedom of press
-by 1775, 8 of the colonies had royal governors, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware were under proprietors and Connecticut + Rhode Island had elected own governors
-every colony utilized a two house legislature; the upper house/council was appointed by crown in royal colonies and by the proprietor in proprietary colonies

1600 – 1776

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Malinche (Donna Maria)- interpreter for the aztecs during the invasion and later wife of cortes

Moctezuma-ruler of Tenochtitlan

Elizabeth I-protestant queen of england who crushed irish uprising

John Rolfe-father of tobacco industry

Oliver Cromwell: took over after Charles I

Hiawatha: co-founder of Iroquois confederacy

Anne Hutchinson=woman who challenged the Puritan orthodoxy→ said predestination was extreme and that holy life was not a sure sign of salvation=she was banished

Roger Williams=wanted everyone to make clean break from the church of England and also challenged Bay Colony’s charter because he said they took land from indians without fair compensation=banished

Massasoit=leader of the Wampanoags and “Massasoit” of the Wampanoag Confederacy.

Metacom (king philip)=Metacom (known to the english as king philip) forged an indian alliance and mounted assaults on english villages; was beheaded

Charles ii= king in England and son of Charles I

Peter stuyvesant=Dutch military leader who led and ended swedish rule

Duke of York=who New York was named in honor of

Nathaniel Bacon: led slave revolt

John Trumbull- was forced to travel to London to pursue his artistic ambitions

-Phillis Wheatley was a slave girl who became a famous poet

-Ben Franklin was the only 1st rank scientist produced in the American colonies
-his kite flying experiment proved that lightning was a form of electricity and he also created bifocal spectacles and the franklin stove and poor richards almanack

Benjamin west and John singleton copely- painters who had to go abroad

John Peter Zenger- was charged with seditious libel (not printing the truth) but he argued that he had printed the truth and he was declared not guilty

Settlers:

John Smith- saved Virginia by meeting Pocohontas

John Rolfe- married pocohontas, father of the tobacco industry

William Bradford- leader in Plymouth who feared that the non puritan settlers would corrupt godly experiment

John Winthrop- Governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony whose skills helped them prosper

Henry hudson- discovered hudson river

William Penn- leader of Quakers and founder of Pennsylvania

William Berkley- governor of Virginia

Scottish lowlanders- big settlers in Pennslyvania

James Olgethorpe- repelled spanish attacks, saved and founded Georgia

Lord Cornbury- bad governer (embessler, drunk) of NY and NJ in 1702

Thomas Hooker- leader of early Connecticut

Lord Baltimore-founded Maryland

Conquistadors:

Prince Henry the Navigator

Christopher Colombus-reported that there was undiscovered land and people,discovers the “bahamas”–> found food crops, returned with them and 1200 men, cattle, swine, horses and sugar, brought diseases. brought forth columbian exchange

Cortes-overpowered aztecs, set sail for Mexico and marched to Tenochtitlan. Laid siege on the city and the Aztec empire was destroyed. Created a culture of mestizos

Pizarro-crushed incas

Dias-rounded southernmost tip

Magellan-first to circumnavigate the globe

Isabella and Ferdinand-spain became united under their rule and they wanted to defeat portugal. spain became the dominant explorers

Vasco De Gama-actually went all the way around tip and reached india returning with jewels and spices

Vespucci-discovered that brazil and west indies were not a part of asia
marco polo-wrote the book travels that influenced the desire to explore asia
ponce de leon-conquered florida

vasco nuñez balboa-conquered panama

francisco coronado-conquered arizona and new mexico

hernado de soto-found the mississippi river

giovanni cabodo (john cabot)- explored north america in 1524

jacques cartier- went up the st. lawerence river

Don juan de onate-moved inward to santa fe new mexico

robert de la salle-he was sent down the mississippi river but he was french so the spanish were angry as it was their territory–> spanish retaliated by establishing san antonio texas

cabrillo-explored california but found no interest

juniperro serra- in 1769 he found san diego and established missions

Sir Humprey Gilbert- tried to colonize but failed

sir walter raleigh-made roanoakes but vanished

francis cook-stole spanish goods and he gave these goods to queen elizabeth

Religious Figures:

Martin Luther- 95 thesis, started protestant reformation and protestant church

John Calvin-start of calvanism which spread into puritanism

Henry VIII-started anglican church and caused english reformation when breaking from catholic church

John Wesley-started Methodist church

George whitefield-used different types of evangelical preaching, focused on human helplessness

Jacobus Arminius-started armenism

Jonathan Edwards:preacher and congregationalist protestant

Charles I-puritan parliament hated him, puritan masses also hated him so they wanted to come to america

James I-Test act, favored catholics

Sir Edmund Andros-generated hostility with his open association with church of england

Roger Williams-wanted clean break with english church

Anne Hutchinson-challenged puritan orthodoxy because of predestination

William III and Mary II-glorious revolution

John Cotton-one of earliest members of protestant clergy

Bartolome de las casas-spanish priest, protector of indians

1680 – 1783

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James Wolfe- helped GB take Quebec during the 7 yrs war

William Pitt- concentrated attacks on montreal, quebec, and the french west indies

Bradock- Failed in cananda due to not attacking the major posts and towns

Jay Adams, Sam Adams, Thomas Jefferson-negotiated peace terms for treaty of paris of 1783

Horatio Gates-won the Battle of Saratoga for the americans

Joseph Brant-leader of the indians

General Cornwallis- British, retreated to the Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements, was forced to surrender in Battle of Yorktown

Admiral de Grasse-Frenchman who joined the Americans in an assault of Cornwallis via the sea (Battle of Yorktown)

George Rogers Clark-conceived the idea of capturing the British forts located in the Illinois country in 1778-1779.

John Paul Jones-is known as the father of the navy. He employed the tactic of privateering.

General Nathaniel Greene-American who succeeded in clearing most British troops out of Georgia and South Carolina.

Catherine the Great of Russia-lead the creation of the Armed Neutrality, which passively allied the remaining neutral European countries against Britain.

General William Howe- washington’s adversary in battle of long island, also took part in battle of saratoga where he would advance up the Hudson River to meet Burgoyne near Albany

General Burgoyne-on British side, pushed down towards Lake Champlain from Canada.

Barry St. Leger-British leader who would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley

General Richard Montgomery-(american) led the failed invasion of canada and was killed through this

Thomas Paine-released a pamphlet called Common Sense in 1776. It argued that the colonies had outgrown any need for English domination and that they should be given independence.

Richard Henry Lee-proposed that the colonies declare their independence.

George Washington-head of the Continental Army

Benedict Arnold-(American)captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, turned a traitor against the Americans in 1780

Ethan allen-(American)captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point

Baron von Steuben:-German who helped train the America fighters to fight the British.

Lord Dunmore-royal (British) governor of Virginia. In 1775, he issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army. “Lord Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment”

Samuel de Champlain-→ soldier and explorer who was known as “father of new france”

-Antonine Cadillac-founded detroit “the city of straits in 1701

Robert de la salle-floated down the Mississippi to the point where it mingles with the gulf
-named this Louisiana

1688

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1702 – 1713

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1730 – 1745

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Religious revival in the colonies as preachers introduce a morel lively style of preaching and the church becomes less exclusive.

1744 – 1748

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1754 – 1763

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Causes: Fight between the French and the British for the Ohio River Valley and trade with the Indians in that area. To ensure that they remained in control of that area, the French built forts along the Valley. George Washington attacked these forts, starting the war, but losing the first battle.
Alliances: The French and the Indians allied together against the British and the colonists.
Effects: The British won the war! However, because they fought in all stages of the war be it land sea Europe or North America, they got a lot of DEBT. They also gained LAND.

1756

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1758

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1759

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1760

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1763

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Scotsman attack Indians

1763

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Indians revolted because they don;t have french allies anymore and feel threatened by the British owning the land in the Ohio River Valley.

1763

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Prohibited the colonists from moving west of the Appalachian mountains due to Pontiac’s rebellion and fear of more Indian uprisings. The colonists largely ignored this.

1763

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England gains French land from canada to Florida and from Appalacians to Mississippi River
England gains florida
French gains west indies

April 1764

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First revenue tax imposed on the colonists on their sugar.

1765

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The colonists were forced to provide food and shelter for the British soldiers who were there.

1765

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formed to coordinate boycott and military preparation

March 1765

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First direct tax on the colonists on all their legal documents (marriage licenses, files, playing cards even). This resulted in the sons and daughters of liberty tarring and feathering those who collected this tax; thus, it was repealed. Those who disregarded this act were sent to admiralty courts in England where they weren’t represented by americans and were guilty until proven innocent (violation of the rights of englishmen in the magna carta).

October 7 1765 – October 25 1765

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People from 9 colonies met to oppose the Stamp Act and devised the nonimportation agreement (the boycotts [restrictions] of buying British goods).

1766

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March 18, 1766

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Britain says they still have full control over the colonies (in response to the rebellion seen in the sons of liberty, stamp act congress, non importation agreements, etc.)

June 29, 1767

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Tax on imports—-> paper, tea, glass

1768

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first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation. They ceded most of their land to the Americans.

March 5, 1770

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British troops were stationed heavily in Boston. Tensions arose and evolved into a riot that resulted in the death of 5 americans.

1772

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Formed by Sam Adams in resistance to British policies. Their function was to share plans amongst the rebels in the colonies.

1773

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There was a tax on the colonist’s tea and a monopoly to the British east india company. They were being sold good tea at a very low price which seems good right? But not for the americans because they wanted CHOICE and OPTIONS (inklings of free market economic thinking) not only the one type of tea.

december 16 1773

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In response to the tea act, members of Sons of Liberty dump tea into Boston harbor.

1774

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This extended boundary of quebec into Ohio valley, the colonists were angry because this was their land and the Canadians were catholic, which was a religion they hated.

March 24, 1774

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In response to the Boston tea party, Boston port was closed until property was paid for reduced power of Massachusetts legislature and banned town meetings. Quartering act was also expanded. The port closing resulted in many people starving due to lack of food being imported.

September 1774

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This was a step toward colonial unity, they met to repair relations with GB. during this meeting the declaration of rights and grievances was formed as well as the association

September 1774

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King George dismisses this, list of what they would like fixed/ the wrongs that had faced due to the British government : It declared that taxes imposed on British colonists without their formal consent were unconstitutional.

January 1775 – 1776

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division/ discussion on whether to declare independence

April 19, 1775

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“shot heard around the world”
announced American revolution

-started when British were sent to confiscate colonial weapons but were met with the minutemen who had heard of their arrival due to people like Paul Revere riding around town on horses yelling “The British are coming!”

June 17, 1775

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British take hill but colonists gain confidence, first sign of guerilla warfare

July 1775

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professed American loyalty to the king and begged to the king to stop future hostilities. The petition was rejected by the king.

October 1775

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Jan. 1776

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January 10, 1776

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Thomas Paine convinces colonists to declare independence and build a republic

March 1776

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GB is kicked out of Boston

July 4, 1776

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.written by Thomas Jefferson and was approved on July 4, 1776. The “declaration” was more of an “explanation” of why the colonists sought their independence.

August 27, 1776

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George Washington flees to manhattan

December 1776

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George Washington captured 1,000 Hessians, guerilla warfare

September 19, 1777

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where General Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command, This win made it possible for the Americans to receive much-needed aid from France

September 28, 1781 – October 19, 1781

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admiral de grasse (french assistance by sea) Rochambeau french assistance by land with George washington) British Cornwallis surrenders = american victory!

1783

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Brought peace to the frontier
British formally recognized the independence of the United States.
– Florida is given to Spain.
– The independent American now consisted of territory stretching to the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south.
– Yankees were to retain a share in the fisheries of Newfoundland.
– The Loyalists were to no longer be prosecuted.
– Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restored. The states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of Loyalist property collection

1774 – 1824

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Lord Sheffield- argued in his pamphlet that Britain could win back America’s trade without repealing the navigation laws.

Captain Daniel Shays- led Shays’s Rebellion

Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury to Washington, started the Bank of the U.S and was the Leader of the Federalist Party.

George Washington- First President of the U.S, believed that political parties weren’t good and thus “remained neutral”. Set the precedent for only having 2 terms.

Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee- anti-federalists

George Washington and Benjamin Franklin- federalists

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, and Secretary of War Henry Knox- Washington’s Cabinet

James Madison- wrote the Bill of Rights and helped get them passed by Congress in 1791. Later became president.

Thomas Jefferson- Leader of the democratic-republicans, third president of the U.S.

John Jay- Chief justice, negotiated jay’s treaty in which the British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay for damages for the seizures of American ships. Foreign policy rep in the U.S.

John Adams- last federalist president, 2nd president

Napoleon Bonaparte was the dictator of France.

Albert Gallatin: Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson; believed that a national debt wasn’t a blessing; he reduced the national debt.

John Marshall, was not removed in the midnight judges scandal. He served under presidents including Jefferson and others for 34 years. He shaped the American legal tradition more than any other person.

James Madison was the new Secretary of State, later became president

Samuel Chase: a Supreme Court justice that the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to impeach; he was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate

Napoleon Bonaparte-french victor who ceded the louisiana territory to americans

Robert Livingston-negotiated terms of louisiana purchase

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark-explored Louisiana territory

Aaron Burr: Jefferson’s first-term vice president; after being dropped from Jefferson’s cabinet, he joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Alexander Hamilton uncovered the plot. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and Hamilton accepted. Hamilton refused to shoot and he was shot and killed by Burr.

General James Wilkinson: the corrupt military governor of the Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida; betrayed Burr when he learned that Jefferson knew of the plot; Burr was acquitted of the charges of treason by Chief Justice John Marshall and he fled to Europe.

Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa: Shawnee brothers who unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British.

William Henry Harrison: governor of the Indiana territory; defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Oliver Hazard Perry: captured a British fleet in Lake Erie.

General Harrison- army overtook the British at Detroit and Fort Malden in the Battle of the Thames in October 1813.

Thomas Macdonough: naval officer who forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; he saved upper New York from British conquest.

Francis Scott Key: American prisoner aboard a British ship who watched the British fleet bombard Fort McHenry; wrote the “Star Spangled Banner.”

Andrew Jackson defended New Orleans at the Battle of New Orleans.

Tsar Alexander I of Russia called the Americans and British to come to peace because he didn’t want his British ally to lose strength in the Americas and let Napoleon take over Europe. The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814

Henry Clay created a plan for developing a profitable U.S. economy. It was called the American System. Also created the Missouri Compromise

James Monroe won the election.The time during the administrations of President Monroe was known as the “Era of Good Feelings”

Daniel Webster: “Expounding Father”; served in both the House and Senate.

John Quincy Adams: Secretary of State to James Monroe.

George Canning: British foreign secretary; asked the American minister in London if the United States would band together with the British in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European dictators to keep out of Latin America.

1774

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1775

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the idea that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good.

1775

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Founded by the Quakers in Philadelphia.

1775

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the idea that the mother was selflessly devoted to her family; this was described as the model of a proper republican mother.

1777 – 1781

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earliest form of constitution in US made to convince France that America had a genuine government
pros:created central government
defines the authority of congress and states
northwest ordinance
delegated war expenses
was ineffective because:
congress had no power to regulate commerce
congress could not enforce tax collection (states were not required to pay the gov taxes)
was a stepping stone towards the constitution

1783

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The Continental Army officers formed an exclusive hereditary order.

1784

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The British remained in the U.S despite them having to leave according to the Treaty of Paris in 1783 to maintain the fur trade with the native Americans. Their excuse was that the Americans didn’t hold up their end of the bargain by not paying off debts and not being nice to loyalists. Meanwhile, Spain closed off trade on the Missipipi River which greatly harmed the economy.

1785

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Acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt.

1786

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met to deal with the issue of interstate commerce. was not successful because only 5 states showed up

1786

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occurred in Massachusetts, impoverished back country farmers who were losing their farms because of forecolosers and tax delinquencies attempted to inforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers; led by Captain Daniel Shays.
The uprising was crushed but it led to changes in laws.

1786

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created by Jefferson
stated that no religion should be imposed on anybody and that each person decided him/her own faith

1787

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met to fix the articles of confederation, but ended up writing a new constitution
-George Washington was the leader

large state plan=propsed by Virginia, said that state’s representation in Congress should be based upon the state’s population
small states plan=wated equal representation in Congress regardless of population

1787

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It called for representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators.

1787

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uniform national land policy created the northwest territories and gave land to the government
when a territory had 60,000 people, it could be admitted by congress as a state
-no slaves

1787

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developed due to the arguement over whether slaves would count as a part of the population. determined they would count for 3/5ths of a person

1788

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included
-great compromise
-called for president
-3/5 compromise
-end of slave trade by 1807

1789

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Hamilton supported this tax on certain imports
would bring in much needed revenue for the government and protected small American industries

1789

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Created the the federal court system, including the Supreme Court. It also created the office of attorney general.
John Jay became the first Chief Justice.

1789

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With Washington’s election, two political parties emerge- the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans.
Federalists:

Should be a national bank and a national currency (thought this would be more stable).

Strong, centralized government

Loose construction + loose interpretation of constitution

Thinks that U.S shouldn’t fight w France in the French Revolution.

Supporters- Elites and Merchants

Ex. John Adams, Alexander Hamilton

-The people who “own the country” should govern it (meaning the wealthy and influential, largely in New England).

-The government should support private enterprise.

-National debt should be absolved

Jeffersonians:

There should be state banks and the states should handle their own finances and currencies. (thought a national bank would serve the interests of only the wealthy, taking power that belonged to individual states).

Weaker national government, stronger state authority

Strict Construction + strict interpretation of the constitution

Thinks that U.S should fight w France.

Supporters- Non-elites and farmers

Ex. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison

-Power should be in the hands of the states (in order to prevent dictatorship).

-No special privilege should go to manufacturers.

-(More) pro France in foreign affairs

-National debt should be payed

1789

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established the cabinet
his cabinet included : Sec of State–> thomas jefferson
sec of treasury–> alexander hamilton
sec of war–> henry knox

1791

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Alexander Hamilton proposed a Bank of the United States that could print paper money and provide a stable national currency. The national bank would also be a place where the Treasury could deposit monies.
Thomas Jefferson did not support this idea and felt that the states had the right to manage their own money.
most of the opposition came from the south and support from the north.
Was created and located in Philadelphia

1791

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Listed all the rights that were ensured to any U.S citizen: freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, bear arms, no housing of soldiers, protection from unreasonable searches and siezures, due process of law (Rights in civil cases, no excessive bails or fines, rights of accused persons in criminal cases), life + liberty + property, other rights kept by the people, any rights not listed determined by the states.

1791

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tax on a few domestic items, one being whiskey

1792

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Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to support the French in their war against the British. The Federalists were opposed.

1792

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he wanted to strengthen national credit
funding at par: which meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value plus interest
assumption: the federal government would pay states’ debts

*Hamilton believed that a national debt was good for the country: the more creditors to whom the government owed money, the more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of the government

1793

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stated the country’s neutrality from the Britain-france war. he was backed by hamilton

1794

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John Jay was sent to London to negotiate with England.
-hoped it would prevent war
-British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay for damages for the seizures of American ships
-The treaty also called for the U.S. to continue to pay the debts owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary War accounts.

1794

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alliance of 8 Indian nations who terrorized the Americans and to whom the British sold firearms to
-The Jeffersonians felt that American should again fight Britain in defense of America’s liberties. The Federalists opposed this action because Hamilton’s hopes for economic development depended on trade with Britain.

1794

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Lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey. The rebellion was ended when President Washington sent in federal troops. Although the troops faced no opposition, a strong message was sent by the government stating that it would enforce the law.

1795

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Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of Florida; however, they kept many forts in northern Florida.

1797

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Adams was a federalist, the last federalist president in fact. He did things such as the Alien and Sedition Acts that were very unconstitutional, and was hated by a majority of the people. He enforced the Midnight judges, and continued in the idea that America was too young to go to war.

1797 – 1798

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President John Adams sent John Marshall to France to negotiate in 1797. Hoping the meet Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, Adams’s envoy was secretly approached by 3 go-betweens, later referred to as X, Y, and Z. The French spokesmen demanded a bribe of $250,000 just to talk to Talleyrand. This angered the Americans and led them to build up a navy and re-establish the Marine Corps.

1798

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raised the residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from 5 years to 14 years. They also stated that the President could deport or jail foreigners in times of peace or hostilities.

*FEDERALIST CREATION
-hurt the jeffersonian democratic republicans because many members of their party were immigrants

1798

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stated that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment.

1798 – 1799

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Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions that stated that the states had the right to refuse laws created by the government. Virtually no other state followed the two states’ resolutions. This directly defied the rule that only the Supreme Court could determine what was constitutional.

1800

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the term given to the election of 1800; no Federalist became president after this election.

1800

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Jefferson beats adams

1800

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The Federalists accused Jefferson of having an affair with one of his slaves.

1801

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John Adams appoints 16 federalist judgeships the last day of his presidency. This was quickly repealed except John Marshall wasn’t removed.

1801 – 1805

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Jefferson preferred to make the military smaller, but he was forced to change his thoughts of not using military force when the leader of Tripoli informally declared war on the United States. Jefferson sent the new navy to Tripoli and after 4 years of fighting, a deal was reached. The U.S. paid Tripoli $60,000 for the release of captured Americans.

1802

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Undid the Alien Act and reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years.

1803

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James Madison, the new secretary of state, had cut judge Marbury’s salary; Marbury sued James Madison for his pay. The court ruled that Marbury had the right to his pay, but the court did not have the authority to force Madison to give Marbury his pay.

*Most importantly, this decision showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution.

April 30, 1803

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Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World Empire for 2 reasons:
1) He failed to re-conquer the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to serve as a source of foodstuffs.
2) Because Britain controlled the seas, Napoleon didn’t want Britain to take over Louisiana. Selling the land to America removed this possibility and it gave Napoleon much-needed cash. He also hoped giving the land to America would help make America a world-power that would disrupt the ambitions of the British king.
Robert Livingston: along with James Monroe, he negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803, ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million. The Americans had signed 3 treaties and gotten much land to the west of the Mississippi. 820,000 square miles at 3 cents/acre.

1804 – 1806

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Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis and a military officer, William Clark to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase.

led to creation of maps and detailed descriptions of species in the area
the land was fertile so people would want to move

1806

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England closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping. The French ordered the seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.

1807

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a royal ship attacked the U.S. frigate, the Chesapeake, after the Americans refused to returned four alleged British deserters.

1807

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-jefferson passed this
-banned the exportation of any goods to any countries
-With the act, Jefferson planned to force France and England, who both depended on American trade, to respect America and its citizens, who had been killed and captured by both countries. The embargo significantly hurt the profits of U.S. merchants and was consequently hated by Americans.

1809

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opened up trade to every country except France and Britain.
The embargo failed because Jefferson overestimated the dependence of Britain and France on America’s trade. Britain was able to trade with the Latin American republics and France had enough land in Europe to support itself.

March 4, 1809

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1810

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The Georgia legislature granted 35 million acres to private speculators; the next legislature cancelled the bribery-induced transaction. John Marshall let the state give the acres to the private speculators calling it a contract and constitutional. The decision protected property rights against popular pressures.

1810

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It reopened American trade with the entire world, but it had a clause stating that if Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, then the U.S. would reinstate its trading embargo against the non-repealing country. Napoleon convinced James Madison to give Britain three months to lift its Orders in Council. Madison did, but Britain chose not to lift its Orders in Council, and Madison had to re-enact the United States’s trade embargo, but this time just against Britain.

1811

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The “war hawks” wanted to go to war with the British and wanted to eliminate the Indian threats to pioneers.

1812

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Causes:
Madison (now president) approved the Macon’s Bill No. 2, manipulated by Napoleon, and resulting in America siding with the French against the British
Britain was supplying guns to belligerent American Indians
War Hawks wanted war with Britain

Effects:
Showed other nations that America would defend their beliefs if you tried to fight them
Nationalism grew from the war: the army and the navy were expanded and the U.S. bank was revived by Congress in 1816

october 1813

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where General Harrison’s army overtook the British at Detroit and Fort Malden

august 1814

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British force attacked washinton D.C and burned the white house and capitol

September 11, 1814

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Thomas Macdonough, naval officer, forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; he saved upper New York from British conquest.

December 1814

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Tsar Alexander I of Russia called the Americans and British to come to peace because he didn’t want his British ally to lose strength in the Americas and let Napoleon take over Europe. The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium, was an armistice. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay went to Ghent for the signing.

Effects:
Hartford Convention

December 15, 1814 – January 5, 1815

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Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island met in 1814 in Hartford, Connecticut for a secret meeting to discuss their disgust of the war and to redress their grievances. The Hartford Convention’s final report demanded:
– Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargoes.
– Constitutional amendments requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared.
– The abolition of slavery.
– A President could only serve 1 term.
– The abolition of the 3/5 clause.
– The prohibition of the election of 2 successive Presidents from the same state.
*MARKED THE DEATH OF THE FEDERALIST PARTY

January 8, 1815

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andrew jackson defended new orleans

1816

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Primarily for protection for American companies. British companies were trying to put American factories out of business by selling their British goods for much less than the American factories. The tariff placed a 20-25% tax on the value of dutiable imports. This tax increased over time, creating problems of no competition between companies. Part of the “American System” made by Henry Clay.

1816

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It had 3 main parts:
1) A strong banking system that would provide easy and abundant credit.
2) A protective tariff that would allow eastern manufacturing to flourish.
3) A network of roads and canals that would transport raw materials across the country.

1816

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“Era of Good Feelings”-2 political parties were getting along (was actually not all good feelings)–>

1817

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limited naval armament on the Great Lakes

1818

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allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with the Canadians and provided for a 10-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country without a surrender of the rights/claims of either America or Britain

1818

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went into Florida saying he would punish the Indians and recapture the runaways who were hiding away in Spanish Florida. He did this and captured St. Marks and Pensacola, the 2 most important Spanish posts in the area.

1819

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Dartmouth College was given a charter by King George III but New Hampshire wanted to take it away. John Marshall ruled in favor of the college.

1819

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Spain ceded Florida and Spanish claims to Oregon in exchange for America’s claims to Texas.

1819

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Involved an attempt by Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on the Bank’s notes. John Marshall declared the U.S. Bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. He strengthened federal authority when he denied the right of Maryland to tax the Bank.

1819

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The first financial panic since President Washington took office. The main cause was over-speculation in frontier lands.
The Bank of the United States was hated by western farmers because it foreclosed on many farms.

1819

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The House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment, making it more difficult for Missouri to become a state. It did not allow for anymore slaves to be brought into Missouri and for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already in Missouri. The amendment was defeated by the slave states in the Senate.

1820

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Authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 an acre. The West also demanded cheap transportation and cheap money.

1820

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Congress decided to admit Missouri as a slave state in 1820. But, Maine, which was apart of Massachusetts, was to be admitted as a separate, free state. Therefore, there were 12 slave states and 12 free states.
The Missouri Compromise by Congress forbade slavery in the remaining territories in the Louisiana Territory north of the line of 36° 30′, except for Missouri.

1821

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involved the Cohens appealing to the Supreme Court after being found guilty of illegally selling lottery tickets in Virginia. Virginia won and the conviction was withheld, but the ruling further cemented the powers of the federal government.

1823

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President Monroe’s warning to the European powers; its two components were noncolonization and nonintervention; it had little immediate impact.
– Monroe stated that the era of colonization in the Americas was over.
– Monroe also warned against foreign intervention. He warned Britain to stay out of the Western Hemisphere, and stated that the United States would not intervene in foreign wars.
-The Europeans powers were offended by the Monroe Doctrine. This was in part because of America’s soft military strength.
President Monroe was more concerned with the security of America when he issued the Monroe Doctrine. He basically warned the Old World powers to stay away. The Doctrine thrived off nationalism.

1824

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came up when New York tried to give a private company a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. (Meaning that no other company could use the waterway.) New York lost.

1824

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Russians retreated farther north into Alaska.

1779 – 1920

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John Quincy Adams- president who was a strong nationalist and he supported the building of national roads and canals. He also supported education

National Republicans- leaders were Clay and Adams

Democratic-Republicans- leader was Jackson

Andrew Jackson- first president from the west and second president without a college education

Denmark Vesey- led slave rebellion in South Carolina

Five Civilized Tribes- Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. These tribes made efforts to assimilate into white culture. President Jackson wanted to move the Indians so Americans could expand.

Nicholas Biddle- the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possibly unconstitutional amount of power over the nation’s financial affairs.

Anti-Masonic Party- The party hated the Masonic Order, a secret society, because it thought the Order was comprised of privileged, elite people. Although Jackson was supported egalitarianism and “the common man”, he was a Mason himself; therefore the Anti-Masons were an anti-Jackson party. It gained support from evangelical Protestant groups.

Whigs- supported government programs, reforms, and public schools. They called for internal improvements like canals, railroads, and telegraph lines.
The Whigs claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of corruption. They absorbed the Anti-Masonic Party.
-supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community, a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery.

Stephan Austin- Mexico gave a large chunk of Texas land to him.He promised to bring families into Texas.

Santa Anna- dictator of Mexico; in 1835, he removed Texans’ local rights and started to raise army to suppress the rebelling Texans.

Sam Houston- commander in chief for Texas army.
-forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty in 1836 after the Battle of San Jacinto. The treaty defined the Rio Grande as the southwestern boundary of an independent Texas.

(jacksonian) Democrats- supported individual liberties, states’ rights, and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.

George Caitlin- painter and student of Native American life who was one of the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature; proposed the idea of a national park.

(Nativists) Know-Nothing party- americans who disliked the Irish and German because they believed they were stealing their jobs and they opposed them also because they were roman catholic

Samuel Slater- “Father of the Factory System” in America; escaped Britain with memorized plans for textile machinery; put into operation the first machine to spin cotton thread in 1791.

Eli Whitney- built the first cotton gin in 1793. The cotton gin was much more effective than slaves at separating the cotton seed from the cotton fiber. Its development affected the entire world. Because of the cotton gin, the South’s production of cotton greatly increased and demand for cotton revived the demand for slavery. interchangeable parts was an idea
created by Eli Whitney. the idea of using machines (instead of people) to make each part of the musket. This meant that the musket’s components would be consistently manufactured, and thus, could be switched

Elias Howe- invented the sewing machine in 1846. The sewing machine boosted northern industrialization. It became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry

Samuel F. B. Morse- invented the telegraph.

Catharine Beecher- urged women to enter the teaching profession.

John Deere- produced a steel plow in 1837 which broke through the thick soil of the West.

Robert Fulton- installed a steam engine on a boat and thus, created the first steamboat. The steamboat played a vital role in the economic expansion of the West and South, via their extensive waterways.

Governor DeWitt Clinton- governor of New York who lead the building of the Erie Canal that connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in 1825; the canal lowered shipping prices and decreased passenger transit time.

Peter Cartwright- a revivalist, traveling preacher who converted thousands to Christianity.

Charles Grandison Finney- one of the greatest revivalist preachers.

Joseph Smith- formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) in 1830 when he deciphered the Book of Mormon from some golden plates given to him by an angel; led the Mormons to Illinois.

Brigham Young- led the Mormons to Utah to avoid persecution.

Horace Mann- campaigned effectively for a better school system.

Emma Willard- Women’s schools at the secondary level came in the 1820s because of her.

Dorothea Dix- traveled the country, visiting different asylums; released a report on insanity and asylums; her protests resulted in improved conditions for the mentally ill.

William Ladd- founded the american peace society

Neal S. Dow- thought that alcohol should be outlawed; “Father of Prohibition

Robert Owen- founded a communal society in New Harmony, Indiana in 1825 to seek human betterment.

Washington Irving- the first American to win international recognition as a literary figure.

James Fenimore Cooper- the first American novelist to gain world fame.

Ralph Waldo Emerson- transcendentalist poet and philosopher; urged American writers to forget European traditions and write about American interests; wrote “The American Scholar,” which was an intellectual declaration of independence.

Henry David Thoreau- : transcendentalist who believed that people should ignore bodily desires and pursue truth through study and meditation.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow- one of the most famous poets to come from America; wrote for the wealthy class; was adopted by the less-cultured class.

Edgar Allan Poe- wrote with a pessimistic tone, unlike the literature at the time.

Herman Melville- wrote the novel Moby Dick.

lucretia mott- was one of the leading voices of the abolitionist and feminist movements of her time. Raised in a Quaker community, she became a member of the society’s ministry and adopted its anti-slavery views. she helped form the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, and later was among the founders of the American women’s rights movement

elizabeth cady stanton- became involved in the abolitionist movement after a progressive upbringing. She helped organize the world’s first women’s rights convention in 1848, and formed the National Women’s Loyal League with Susan B. Anthony in 1863. Seven years later, they established the National Woman Suffrage Association

susan b anthony- lecturer for women’s rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten people

lucy stone- kept her maiden name after marriage

amelia bloomer- donned a short skirt with turkish trousers

john j audubon- painted wildfoul in their natural habitat “birds of america”

stephan c foster- An important figure of nineteenth century popular music, one of America’s earliest known songwriters.

louisa may alcott- wrote little women

walt whitman- poet, located divinity at common objects “leaves of grass”

emily dickinson- created her own world through poetry
extreme example of romantic artist’s desire for social reform
explored themes of death, love and immortality

nathaniel hawthorne- the tragic of his fathers death on an ocean voyage led him to create the scarlett letter and marble faun

francis parkman- wrote in the dark, chronicled the struggle between france and brittain in the colonial times

1780

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art style that emphasized symmetry, balance, and restraint (columns, domes, pediments).

1780 – 1920

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Community where their monastic customs prohibited marriage and sexual relations

1787

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was founded in 1787 to Christianize Indians.

1792

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hard-surfaced highway that ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster; drivers had to pay a toll to use it.

1793 – 1860

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transformed the American economy from one in which people subsisted on things they grew/created to one in which people purchased goods that were produced all over the country. Led to changes in women’s roles as they were able to work in factories.

1794

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Written by Thomas Paine, declared that all churches were set up to enslave and terrify mankind

1794

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The cotton gin was much more effective than slaves at separating the cotton seed from the cotton fiber. Its development affected the entire world. Because of the cotton gin, the South’s production of cotton greatly increased and demand for cotton revived the demand for slavery.

1800 – 1850

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originated in the revolutionary salons of europe. emphasized imagination over reason, nature over civilization, intuition over calculation and self over society

1800 – 1860

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lecture associations that provided platforms for speakers in areas as science, literature and moral philosophy

1800 – 1850

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began in 1800. A wave of religious fervor swept over the country. Women became more involved in religion during the Second Great Awakening.
-widened the gap between the societal classes and regions. The more prosperous and conservative denominations in the East were little touched by revivalism. Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians derived its members from the wealthier parts of society, while Methodists and Baptists came from less prosperous communities in the South and West.
The issue of slavery split the churches apart.

religions:

Deism:
relied on science rather than the bible
denied the divinity of christ
did believe in a supreme being who created a universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior

Unitarianism:
was derived from Deism. Unitarians believed that God existed in only one person, and not the Trinity. It appealed to mostly intellectuals.`

mormons:
the book of mormon

1818 – 1850

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Most of the ideas of art and painting were taken from Europe.

1824

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candidates were Jackson, Clay, Crawford and Adams
-John Quincy Adams won
in the election of 1824
no one had won the majority of electoral votes so it went to the house of reps
clay was the speaker of the house and he threw his support behind John Quincy Adams.
Jacksonians were mad because Jackson had the majority of popular votes

1825 – 1900

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excelled in romantic art

1825 – 1827

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communal society of about a thousand people in indiana. attracted radicals

1826

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Its members persuaded people to stop drinking.
Drinking decreased worker efficiency and threatened the family structure.

1828

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this society organized peace conferences and regularly published a periodical entitled Advocate of Peace.

january 1828

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Andrew Jackson becomes president over John Quincy Adams

1828

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when Democrats under Jackson replaced most public officials with their own people (the common man). These people were illiterate and incompetent.

march 1828

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hated by southerners, loved ny northerners
-it was hated by Southerners because it was an extremely high tariff and they felt it discriminated against them. The South was having economic struggles and they used the tariff as a scapegoat for their problems.

june 1828

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made by John C. Calhoun, was published in 1828. It was a pamphlet that denounced the Tariff of 1828 as unjust and unconstitutional.

1830

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It moved more than 100,000 Indians living east of the Mississippi to reservations west of the Mississippi. Many Indians died on forced marches along the Trail of Tears.
established by jackson who went against the advice of the supreme court

1830

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came about in the 1830s. The transcendentalists believed that knowledge transcends the senses and can’t be found just by observation; knowledge comes from within the person. Associated traits included self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline.

1832

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erupted in 1832 when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank’s charter.

-Clay wanted to make it an issue for the election of 1832. He felt that if Jackson signed off on the bill, then Jackson would alienate the people of the West who hated the Bank. If Jackson vetoed the bill, then he would alienate the wealthy class of the East who supported the Bank. Clay did not account for the fact that the wealthy class was now a minority. Jackson vetoed the bill, calling the Bank unconstitutional.

-The veto showed that Jackson felt that the Executive Branch had more power than the Judicial Branch in determining the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States. This was despite the fact that the Supreme Court had already ruled that the Bank was constitutional in McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819).

1832

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led by Black Hawk, he led indians to fight against the relocation=defeated

1832

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These ships sacrificed cargo room for speed and were able to transport small amounts of goods in short amounts of time. These ships were eventually superseded by steamboats after steamboats were improved.

1832

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after Jackson got rid of the BUS, federal funds were placed in several dozen state banks that were supportive of Jackson (wildcat currency also followed)

1832

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a slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of 1828. It fell short of the South’s demands

1833

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The delegates of the convention called for the tariff to be null and void in South Carolina. The convention threatened to take South Carolina out of the Union if the Federal government attempted to collect the customs duties by force.

March 1833

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prior to compomise, authorized the Federal government to use force to collect the tariffs.

april 1833

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introduced by Clay, t gradually reduced the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over 8 years. By 1842, the rates would be back at the level of 1816.
-ended the dispute over the Tariff of 1832 between the South and the White House. The compromise was supported by South Carolina but not much by the other southern states.

1836

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Martin Van Buren becomes president

1836

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a decree issued by jackson, but carried out by Van Buren that required all public lands were to be purchased with metallic money

April 21, 1836

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Texas is won for the U.S! But it isn’t admitted yet as to not upset the slave/free state balance. Thus, it is the Lone Star Republic for a while.

may 1836

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The treaty defined the Rio Grande as the southwestern boundary of an independent Texas.

1837

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Not passed by Congress, it called for separating the government and banking.

1837

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broke through the thick soil of the West.

1837

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caused by=speculation of banks, jackson’s financial policies, and speculation of western lands
– caused hundreds of banks to collapse, commodity prices to drop, sales of public to fall, and the loss of jobs.
The Whigs proposed government policies to fix the economic downturn: expansion of bank credit, higher tariffs, subsidies for internal improvement. Van Buren rejected these proposals because he wanted to keep government involvement out of the economy.

1837

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Written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, intellectual declaration of independence , urged for American writers to throw off European traditions and delve into the riches of their own backyards

1840 – 1850

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when many Irish came to America because of a potato rot that induced a famine through Ireland. Most of the Irish were Roman-Catholic. They were politically powerful because they bonded together as one large voting body. They increased competition for jobs, so they were hated by native workers. The Irish hated the blacks and the British

January 1840

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was passed in 1840. An independent treasury would be established and government funds would be locked in vaults.

1840

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Each summer, fur trappers would meet with traders from the East to exchange beaver pelts for manufactured goods

march 1840

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william henry harrison wins but then dies

january 1841

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february 1841 – 1847

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in massachusetts, started in 1841 with the brotherly and sisterly cooperation of about twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism

1842

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Supreme Court ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful.

1846

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1847

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an individual investor only risks his personal investment in a company in the event of a bankruptcy.

1848

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first passed in New York in 1848; enabled businessmen to create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature.

1848

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to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women.

june 1848

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The revised declaration of Independence made at the Seneca Falls Convention to include women.

july 1848 – 1880

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Community that practiced free love, birth control and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring

1851

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which banned the manufacture and sale of liquor in Maine.

1851

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a horse-drawn mechanical reaper that could cut and gather crops much faster than with previous methods (i.e. hand-picking). This enabled larger-scale farming.

1852

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It went from Cumberland, in western Maryland, to Illinois. Its construction was halted during the War of 1812, but the road was completed in 1852.

1855

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was created because people in the east wanted to move west.
The South raised cotton for export to New England and Britain. The West grew grain and livestock to feed factory workers in the East and in Europe. The East made machines and textiles for the South and the West. All of these products were transported using the railroad; the railroad linked America.

-allowed goods to be more easily spread throughout america and quicker travel

1860

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was established in 1860 to carry mail from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. The mail service collapsed after 18 months due to lack of profit.`

1780 – 1865

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Theodore Dwight Weld- abolitionist who spoke against slavery; wrote the pamphlet American Slavery As It Is (1839) which made arguments against slavery; went to Lane Theological Seminary.

William Lloyd Garrison- wrote a militantly anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator; publicly burned a copy of the Constitution.

Sojourner Truth- freed black woman who fought for black emancipation and women’s rights.

Frederick Douglass- black abolitionist who lectured for abolitionism; looked to politics to end slavery; published his autobiography.

Free soilers- opposed extending slavery to the western territories. was created by antislavery men of the North who didn’t trust Cass or Taylor. They supported federal aid for internal improvements. They argued that with slavery, wage labor would wither away and with it, the chance for the American worker to own property. (**weren’t exactly abolitionists, just wanted no slavery so that whites could expand)

Daniel Webster-(secretary of state) and leader of the whigs

John Tyler-Vice President to Henry Harrison; successor as President following Harrison’s death; “Tyler too”; a Democrat at heart and contradicted many of the Whig Party’s ideas

Lord Ashburton- To prevent a wider-reaching war, the London Foreign Office sent this man to Washington to settle the dispute. He and Daniel Webster negotiated and agreed to a new boundary for Maine that put the disputed road in Canadian territory.

Robert J. Walker-Secretary of Treasury to James Polk; devised the Walker Tariff of 1846, a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the tariff from 32% to 25%.

John Slidell-sent by Polk to Mexico City in 1845 to buy California for $25 million; the offer was rejected.

General Zachary Taylor-on January 13, 1846, Polk ordered 4,000 men under this general to rio grande,won many victories including a victory over a large Mexican force at Buena Vista; future President
General Stephen W. Kearny-led 1,700 troops to Santa Fe.

General Winfield Scott-succeeded in battling his way to Mexico City by September 1847; became President Abraham Lincoln’s first choice to lead the Union army in the Civil War.

Nicholas P. Trist-chief clerk of the State Department; signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848.

David Wilmot-proposed an amendment that stated that the territory from Mexico should remain slave-free

liberty party-tiny anti-slavery party

Harriet Tubman- an illiterate runaway slave who helped rescue hundreds of slaves

Henry Clay- the “Great Compromiser,” proposed a series of compromises. He suggested that the North enact a stricter fugitive-slave law.

John Calhoun- the “Great Nullifier,” proposed to return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. His ultimate plan was for America to have two presidents, one from the South and one from the North, each yielding one veto.

Daniel Webster- called for people to make concessions and support Clay’s proposals, for the sake of maintaining the Union (Seventh of March Speech). He was against slavery, but he viewed the collapse of the Union as worse.

William H. Seward- senator of New York; opposed slavery and because of this, he opposed Clay’s proposals; argued that God’s moral law was higher than the Constitution.
Millard Fillmore- took the presidency after taylor died.
signed a series of compromises contained within the Compromise of 1850

William Walker- slavocrat, installed himself as the President of Nicaragua in July 1856. He legalized slavery, but was overthrown by surrounding Central American countries and killed in 1860.

Stephen A. Douglas- senator who tried to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska to be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska

Matthew C Perry- went to japan to settle out terms for treaty of kanagawa

Harriet Beecher Stowe-who was white, published Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852 as an attempt to show the North the horrors of slavery. The novel was published abroad, including France and Britain. It helped to start the Civil War and for the North to win it.

Hinton R. Helper-a non-aristocrat from North Carolina, wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in 1857. He hated both blacks and slavery, and he attempted to use statistics to prove that the non-slaveholding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery.

John Brown-fanatical abolitionist who, in May of 1856, hacked to death 5 presumed pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creek in response to the pro-slavery events in Lawrence.developed a plan to secretly invade the South, call upon the slaves to rise, give the slaves weapons, and establish a black free state.(harpers ferry)

James Buchanan-a Democrat, succeeded Pierce as the President of the United States in the election of 1856. He had a strong southern influence and approved of the Lecompton Constitution.divided the powerful Democratic Party by enraging some Democrats of the North. He divided the only remaining national party and with it, the Union

Senator Stephen Douglas-was strongly opposed to the document and he campaigned against it.(lecompton constitution )

Senator Charles Sumner-of Massachusetts gave a provoking speech condemning pro-slavery men. also provoked senator butler

Preston Brooks-beat Sumner with a cane to unconsciousness.

Captain John C. Fremont-republican candidate for election of 1856 because he was also not influenced by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Republican platform campaigned against the extension of slavery

Millard Fillmore-Know-Nothing’s candidate for the election of 1856.

Dred Scott-a slave who had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil

The Constitutional Union Party-was formed by former Whigs and Know-Nothings.

Abraham Lincoln-won the election of 1860, but he did not win with the popular vote. 60% of the nation voted for another candidate. 10 southern states didn’t even allow Lincoln to appear on the ballot.

Confederate States of America.-The 7 seceders met at Montgomery, Alabama in February 1861 and created a government

Jefferson Davis-a recent member of the U.S. Senate from Mississippi, as President.

Roger B taney-supreme court justice in dred scott decision

John Jordan Crittenden-wrote the crittenden amendments

1790 – 1865

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a network of anti-slavery homes that passed slaves from the slave states to Canada. It’s height was in the 1850s-1860s.

1817

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: founded in 1817; focused on transporting blacks back to Africa.

1822

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founded in 1822 as a place for former slaves.
By 1860, all southern slaves were born in America, and many did not have a desire to return to Africa.

1830

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The South:

monopolistic structure- the Southern economy was very dependent on cotton, which made the economy unstable.

over-speculation- in south, owners over-speculated in land and slaves, causing them fall into debt.

social structure in south-
1. wealthy slave owners
2. regular slave owners
3. non slave holding whites
4. black people

“Black Belt”- region of the South where most slaves were concentrated; stretched from South Carolina and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Responsorial preaching- : style of preaching in which the congregation responds to the preacher with remarks of “amen.”

1831

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: southern rebellion against slavery led by Nat Turner; the rebellion was defeated

1832

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Virginia defeated numerous emancipation bills. Other states followed suit, prohibiting all forms of emancipation.

1833

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: founded in 1833 to oppose slavery.

1836 – 1844

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required all anti-slavery appeals to be tabled without debate in the House of Representatives.

December 29, 1837

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american ship that was carrying military supplies to the rebelling Canadians when it was sunk by a British ship. Washington officials made ineffective protests against the attack.

1838 – 1839

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In 1842, the British wanted to build a road linking the seaport of Halifax to Quebec. The proposed road ran through disputed territory in northern Maine, though. Skirmishes between locals broke out

1839

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enslaved Africans aboard this slave ship and
rebelled and took control of the ship in 1839. The ship landed in Long Island, but the Africans were eventually returned to Sierra Leone.

1839 – 1842

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fought between Britain and China over the rights of British traders to trade opium in China; Britain won in 1842, gaining control of Hong Kong.

1840

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would establish a new Bank of the United States went through Congress, President Tyler vetoed it.

November 1841

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British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 Virginia slaves who had rebelled and captured the American ship

1842 – 1844

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This war was only fought with editorials in papers.

1844

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james polk won

had four goals: 1) A lower tariff; 2) Restore the independent treasury, which the Whigs dropped in 1841 because the Whigs won the presidency; 3-4) The acquisition of California and the settlement of the Oregon Country dispute without violence.

1844

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the first diplomatic agreement between America and China; signed in 1844; expanded trade between the two countries

1846

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lincoln, questioned where the exact spot had been where blood was shed and therefore was questioning president’s motives for starting mexican war

1846

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a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the tariff from 32% to 25%.

August 8, 1846

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an amendment that stated that the territory from Mexico should remain slave-free. This never passed the Senate because the Southern members did not want to remove the possibility of future slave states from this territory.

1847

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Led by General Winfield Scott (mexican war)

February, 1847

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large victory led by General Zachary Taylor over force in Mexico (in mexican war)
general zachary taylor was leading, his force was attacked by troops under santa anna

1848

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Democrats=General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the war of 1812, as their candidate for presidency. Cass was not against slavery; he supported popular sovereignty.

Whigs= Zachary Taylor as their candidate for presidency. Taylor did not have an official stance on slavery, but he did own many slaves

Winner=Zachary Taylor

1848

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ends Mexican War- ceded Texas and the area that included California to America for $15 million. This area was about half of Mexico. The antislavery Whigs in Congress (“Conscience Whigs”) opposed the treaty because they had originally opposed the war. Expansionists also opposed the treaty because they wanted all of Mexico, not just part of it.

1849

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brought violence and disease that overwhelmed the small Californian government. Needing protection, the Californians bypassed the territorial stage of a state, drafted their own Constitution (excluding slavery) in 1849, and applied to Congress for admission into the Union.

1850

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was called to address the admission of California to the Union and threats of secession by southerners.

1850 – 1860

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the idea that the people of a territory should determine their territory’s status of slavery. It was popular with politicians because it was a compromise between the abolitionists and the slaveholders.

march 1850

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In regards to slavery, California was admitted as a free state, but the territories of New Mexico and Utah were open to popular sovereignty. Additionally, slave trade was outlawed in the District of Columbia, but a stricter fugitive-slave law was enacted.

november 1850

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Talk of secession subsided and the Northerners and Southerners were determined that the compromises would end the issue of slavery

december 1850

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the “Bloodhound Bill”, said that fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf and they were denied a jury trial. Northerners who aided slaves trying to escape were subject to fines and jail time. This law was the South’s only real gain from the compromise.

december 10th 1850

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said that neither America nor Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any isthmian waterway.

1852

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Democrats–> Franklin Pierce as their candidate for president. He supported the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law.

Whigs–> chose Winfield Scott as their candidate for president. He also supported the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law.

Free Soil–> John P Hale

Winner: Pierce
end of Whig party

1853

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area was ceded to the United States for $10 million. (over transcontinental railroad)
Southerners argued that the railroad should run through Texas and the New Mexico territory because Texas was already a state and the New Mexico territory was a formally organized territory (it had federal troops to provide protection from Indians). The proposed Northern railroad route ran through the Nebraska territory, which was not protected by troops. The Northerners proposed plans for organizing this territory.

1854

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Spanish officials in Cuba seized an American ship . This accelerated President Pierce’s interest in taking Cuba from Spain, either by force or by purchasing it.

1854

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a group of abolitionists, paid some people to move to Kansas to make it a free state. (The Kansas and Nebraska territories had popular sovereignty in choosing slavery, according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Nebraska was so far north that its future as a free state was never in question.)

1854

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opened up a small amount of trade between America and Japan; signed in 1854; it was Japan’s first real interaction with the Western world in over 200 years.

march 1854

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It stated that if Spain didn’t allow America to buy Cuba for $120 million, then America would attack Cuba on grounds that Spain’s continued ownership of Cuba endangered American interests. The document eventually leaked out and the Northerners foiled the President’s slave-driven plan

May 30 1854

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conflicted with the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.

1856 – 1857

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Dred Scott a slave who had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil

Dred Scott vs. Stanford
the Supreme Court first ruled that because Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, he could not sue in Federal courts. The Court also ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.

The Fifth Amendment
forbade Congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. The Court went further and stated that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional and that Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, no matter what the territorial legislatures themselves wanted.
This victory delighted Southerners, while it infuriated Northerners and supporters of popular sovereignty.

1856

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Captain John C. Fremont
republican candidate for election of 1856because he was also not influenced by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Republican platform campaigned against the extension of slavery.

Millard Fillmore
Know-Nothing’s candidate for the election of 1856.

James Buchanan, a democrat, won

1856

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when John Brown, a fanatical abolitionist who, in May of 1856, hacked to death 5 presumed pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creek in response to the pro-slavery events in Lawrence.

1857

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was caused by over-speculation in the West and currency inflation due to the inrush of Californian gold. The North was the hardest hit, while the South continued to flourish with its cotton.

1857

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lowered import taxes to about 20%. The North blamed it for causing the panic, because they felt they needed higher duties for more protection. This gave the Republicans two economic issues for the election of 1860: protection for the unprotected and farms for the farmless.

September 1857

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the pro-slavery politicians created this document. The document stated that the people were not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, rather, they could vote on whether the constitution would be “with slavery” or “without slavery.” If slavery was voted against, then one of the provisions in the constitution would protect those who already owned slaves in Kansas. Many abolitionists boycotted voting, so the constitution was approved to include slavery.

1858

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Douglas argued that no matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be voted on by the territorial legislatures.

1858

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The slavery supporters won the elections and set up their own government at this location

1858

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The abolitionists then set up their own government giving the Kansas territory two governments.

august 1858 – october 1858

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Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven debates that were arranged from August to October 1858

1859

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where John Brown captured arsenal. Because many of his supporters failed to show up, he was caught and sent to death by hanging. When Brown died, he lived on as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.

1860

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The southern Democrats met in Baltimore to choose their own Democratic presidential candidate. They chose vice-president John C. Breckenridge. The platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of slave-populated Cuba.
The Constitutional Union Party was formed by former Whigs and Know-Nothings. They nominated John Bell as their presidential candidate.
The Republican Party met in Chicago and nominated Abraham Lincoln as their presidential candidate

1860

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making public lands available at $0.25/acre, but it was vetoed by President Buchanan

march 1860

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designed to appease the South. The amendments prohibited slavery in territories north of 360 30′, but it permitted slavery in the territories south of this line. Future states (north and south of this line) would get to vote on the issue of slavery. President Lincoln rejected the amendments.

1840 – 1870

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President Jefferson Davis- of the Confederacy often had disputes with his own congress. his task as President proved to be beyond his powers. Lincoln and the North enjoyed a long-established government that was financially stable and fully recognized at home and abroad.

elizabeth blackwell- america’s first female physician helped organize the US sanitary commission

clara barton- helped transform nursing from a lowly service to a respective one
-opened up a working sphere for women

sally tompkins- ran a Richmond infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers

napoleon iii- king of france who established french gov in mexico

Maximilian- was the French emperor of Mexico City.

John Wilkes Booth- killed Lincoln at Ford Theater

General Ulysses Grant- UNION
fought at the battles:
-richmond
-chattanooga
-fort henry
-fort donelson
-battle of shiloh
-vicksburg

Thomas “stonewall” jackson- CONFEDERATE
-battle of bull run
-peninsula campaign
-battle of chancellorsville

General George B. McClellan- UNION
-Peninsula campaign
-battle of antienam

General Robert E Lee- CONFEDERATE
-seven days battles
-second battle of bull run
-battle of antienam
-gettysburg

General John Pope- UNION
-second battle of bull run

General A. E. Burnside- UNION
-battle of fredericksburg

General Joseph Hooker- UNION
-battle of chancellorsville

General George G. Meade.- UNION
-battle of gettysburg

general george pickett- CONFEDERATE
-gettysburg

General William Tecumseh Sherman- UNION
-sherman’s march

Salmon Chase- secretary of the Treasury

Clement L. Vallandigham- was a prominent member in a group called the Copperheads, which were radical Peace Democrats. he was banished from the North to the South by Lincoln but he later returned after the war had ended

june 1855

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It was an old U.S. wooden ship that was plated with metal armor. It threatened the Northern blockades because it could crush through the Union’s wooden ships

1859

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came due to discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania

1860

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radical peace democrats (democrats were split up into war, peace etc)

1860

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submissionists= The 11 seceded states

Border States= Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia were known as this. They were the only slave states that hadn’t seceded from the Union. These States contained the Ohio River, a vital necessity for both the North and South

North advantages:
-industrial resources
-transportation
-powerful navy
-established government
-population advantage
-king wheat and king corn

south advantages:
-fighting defensive war
-sense of purpose
-veteran military officials
-cotton diplomacy

President Jefferson Davis:
of the Confederacy often had disputes with his own congress. his task as President proved to be beyond his powers. Lincoln and the North enjoyed a long-established government that was financially stable and fully recognized at home and abroad.

President Lincoln:
Illegal actions= He initiated a blockade, increased the size of the Federal army, directed the secretary of the Treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation or security to 3 private citizens for military purposes, and suspended the writ of habeas corpus, which means that a citizen could not be held without a trial

Currency of North= greenback currency, The Washington Treasury issued paper money. this money was not backed by gold, but backed by the unions percieved credit

Currency of the South= bluebacks, money produced by confederate that was subject to runaway inflation.

1861

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union ironclad that fought the merrimack

march, 1861

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It was a high protective tariff that increased duties by 5%-10%. This was designed to raise additional revenue and provide more protection for the Northern manufacturers

April 12, 1861

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where Lincoln suggested a middle-of-the-road solution. He told the South that the North was sending provisions to the fort, not supplies for reinforcement. Taking the move by Lincoln as an act of aggression, the South Carolinians fired upon this fort.

june 1861

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the Confederates won as “Stonewall” Jackson held his line of Confederate soldiers until reinforcements arrived. The loss for the Union dispelled the allusion of a quick end to the war

June 1861

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was organized by women to provide medical support to Union armies in the field.

nov 1861

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formed in late 1861, was dominated by radical Republicans who resented emancipation and the expansion of presidential power in wartime

november 8, 1861

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A Union warship stopped a British mail steamer and removed 2 Confederate diplomats who were heading to Europe. Britain started to send troops to Canada in retaliation, but the situation was resolved when President Lincoln freed the Confederate prisoners.

december 1861

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British shipyards were producing Confederate commerce-raiders. The British ships left their ports unarmed, picked up arms elsewhere, and captured Union ships. One notable ship was this

1862

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McClellan managed to halt Lee’s forces after his forces discovered Lee’s battle plans. Although not a victory, the Union stopped the Confederate march northward.
Antietam provided Lincoln with the military backing to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 23, 1862.

1862

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union defeat under burnside

1862

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provided free land to many people.

feb 1862

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Ulysses Grant’s first major victory for Union

april 1862

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Grant was defeated by Confederate

july 1862

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McClellan’s army launched a waterborne attack in the spring of 1862 that moved towards Richmond. He came to within sight of Richmond and attacked “Stonewall” Jackson. General Robert E. Lee launched a counterattack against the Union forces, known as the Seven Days’ Battles, from June 26 to July 2, 1862 and drove McClellan’s forces back to the sea.
The Northern military plan had 6 components:
1) Slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts.
2) Liberate the slaves and undermine the economic foundation of the South.
3) Cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River.
4) Dismember the Confederacy by sending troops through Georgia and the Carolinas.
5) Capture its capital at Richmond.
6) Try everywhere to engage the enemy and grind it into submission.

august 1862

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grant led this assault on the confederate capital

august 1862

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where General Lee defeated General Pope’s Union forces

1863

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On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued a final proclamation. Lincoln now made the Civil War a war to end slavery.
called for the freeing of all slaves in Confederate territory, except in locations where the Union had mostly regained control. Lincoln did not require slaves to be freed in the Border States because he feared that they would secede. The proclamation fundamentally changed the nature of the war because it effectively removed any chance of a negotiated settlement between the North and the South.

1863

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It was designed to stimulate the sale of government bonds and to establish a standard currency. Banks who joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds and issue paper money that was backed by the bonds.

1863

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in response to the conscription act which stated that men 20-45 must enlist
unfair because rich could pay to send someone else in

May 1863

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Hooker was badly beaten, but not before Jackson was mortally wounded

July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863

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The failure of General George Pickett’s charge enabled the Union to win the battle. Confederate President Jefferson Davis was planning to deliver negotiators to Washington D.C. after Confederates won at Gettysburg. Since the Union ended up winning the battle, Lincoln did not negotiate with the South.

july 1863

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The city fell and surrendered on July 4, 1863. union victory under Grant

november 1863

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Grant won this battle for Union and Tennessee was cleared of Confederates. Grant was made general in chief due to this win.

11/19/1863

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At a cemetery dedication in Gettysburg, Lincoln delivered this address

1864

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union party=lincoln and andrew johnson
democrats + copperheads=george mccellan

1864

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continued on through Georgia, intent on destroying supplies destined for the Confederate army. By waging war on their homes, union’s army also sought to reduce the morale of the men at the front. saw the capture of Savannah on December 22, 1864. moved up through South Carolina, capturing and burning Columbia on February 17, 1865.

1864

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Fearing defeat, the Republicans joined with the War Democrats to form this Party in the election of 1864

1864

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Grant had 100,000 men and engaged Lee in a series of battles in the Wilderness of Virginia

may 31 1864 – june 12 1864

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led for union by grant. Grant had 100,000 men and engaged Lee in a series of battles in the Wilderness of Virginia

1865

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legally ended slavery

april 9 1865

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where Lee was forced to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia (a significant portion of the Confederate army

1867

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It was partly designed to strengthen the Canadians against the possible vengeance of the United States.

1867

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American democracy had proven itself and the disfranchised British people used this to justify their own democracy.

1820 – 1900

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People:
booker t washington-leading champion of black education was ex-slave . He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to solving the nation’s racial problems was labeled “accommodationist” because it did not directly challenge white supremacy. he avoided the issue of social equality, focusing on economic equality

Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois-attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.

Joseph Pulitzer-was a leader in the techniques of news sensationalism (yellow journalism).

William Randolph Hearst-built up a chain of newspapers, starting with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887.

horatio Alger-was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction involving New York newsboys in 1866.Authors started to write about realism, naturalism, and regionalism.

Mark Twain-was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of social injustice.

Henry James-wrote about the confrontation of innocent Americans with Europeans. His novels frequently included women as the central characters. He was a master of psychological realism.

jane Addams-established Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house. she condemned war and poverty. Hull House offered instruction in English, counselling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents.

Charles Darwin-On the Origin of the Species stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life.The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion. Conservatives stood by their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.

Carrie Champman Catt-under her suffragists deemphasized the argument that women deserved the vote as a matter of right. instead she stressed that women should vote if they were to continue duties as homemakers and mothers

Winslow Homer-brought a similar mastery to drawing/painting the farms and swelling seas of the northeast

augustus saint-gaudens-a gifted sculptor. commemorated the civil war

frederick law olmsted-park builder who sought to foster virtue and egalitarian valued with his designs for New York’s central park

John Dewey-was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform

hiram revels-was an (black) American politician, a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and a college administrator.

oliver howard-led the bureau (union general)

Andrew Johnson-vice president to Lincoln who soon became president due to his death. he was a southern democrat born into poverty so he disliked the southern aristocratic class and because he hated them he hated slavery so Lincoln thought he could be a good choice. However he was a white supremacist who made bad decisions against the republican congress and Congress ended up trying to impeach him.

Charles Sumner-led the Republican radicals in the Senate for black freedom and racial equality.

Thaddeus Stevens-led the radicals in the House of Representatives. had a radical program of drastic economic reforms and extensive protection of political rights. This program was never enacted.

Edwin M. Stanton-(a spy for the Republican party), in the president’s cabinet. When Johnson dismissed Stanton in 1868, the House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson for “high crimes and misdemeanors.”

ben wade-stanton’s replacement

William Seward-signed a treaty with Russia that gave Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million.Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. because it felt that it was over-expanded in North America. Russia also wanted to strengthen the United States as a barrier against its enemy, Britain. Although the American people were focused on Reconstruction and anti-expansion, they supported the purchase of Alaska because they did not want to offend the Russians, who had helped them during the Civil War.

republican majority-agreed with Lincoln and believed that the seceded states should be restored to the Union as quickly as possible

radical republicans-felt the South should suffer greatly before its re-admittance – this minority wanted the South’s social structure to be uprooted, the planters to be punished, and the newly-emancipated blacks to be protected by federal power.

“Scalawags”-were Southerners who were accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence in the radical governments.

“Carpetbaggers”-were sleazy Northerners who had come to the South to seek power and profit.

redeemers-regimes that were highly democratic

liberal protestants-adapted religious ideas to modern culture, attempting to reconcile Christianity with scientific and economic doctrines. they rejected biblical literalism, urging christians to view biblical stories as models for christian behavior rather than as dogma. they stressed the ethical teachings of the bible and allied themselves with the reform oriented social gospel movement.

social darwinists- argued that individuals won their stations in life by competing on the basis of their natural talents. the wealthy and powerful had simply demonstrated greater abilities than the poor

Cornelius Vanderbilt-made lot of money improving the Eastern railroads.
2 advancements helped the development of the railroads: the steel rail and a standard gauge of track width

alexander graham bell-invented the telephone. revolutionized communication

thomas Alva Edison-invented numerous devices; the most well-known is the electric light bulb in 1879.

Andrew Carnegie-(steel king) invented the idea of vertical integration. was not a monopolist and disliked monopolistic trusts. By 1900, he was producing ¼ of the nation’s Bessemer steel.

John D. Rockefeller-(oil baron) came up with horizontal integration. he also created the Standard Oil Company of Ohio in 1870, attempting to eliminate the middlemen and knock out his competitors. By 1877, he controlled 95% of all the oil refineries in the nation. Rockefeller expanded his company by eliminating his competitors. Other trusts came about in America. These included the sugar trust, the tobacco trust, the leather trust, and the harvester trust.

mary harris “mother” jones-a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.

samuel gompers-the American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and was led by this man

Jim Fisk and Jay Gould-devised a plot to drastically raise the price of the gold market in 1869. The two men bought and hoarded a large amount of gold, driving up the price. On “Black Friday,” September 24, 1869, the Treasury was forced to sell gold from its reserves to lower the high price of gold.
“Boss” Tweed-employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to milk New York of as much as $200 million. he was eventually put into prison when Thomas Nast exposed him in his political cartoons

Democrats-were immigrant Lutherans and Roman Catholics who believed in toleration of differences in an imperfect world. They also opposed the government imposing a single moral standard on the entire society. were found in the South and in the northern industrial cities

Thomas B. Reed-took control of the House and used intimidation to get Congress to pass several debated bills.

Grover Cleveland -again ran for president in the election and won, beating out the Populist Party and the Republican Party.

Rutherford B. Hayes-becomes president following the compromise of 18777
sends federal troops to break up the great RR strike

James A. Garfield-assasinated once president

Chester A. Arthur-throws support behind Pendleton Act

Charles J. Guiteau-man who killed Garfield

Grover Cleveland-laissez-faire
signed into law interstate commerce act renominated (ONLY DEMOCRAT)

1830 – 1870

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Realism-authors found their subjects in the course human comedy and drama around them

1860

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New Immigrants-of the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe. They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions.

July 1st, 1862

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Republican Congress had passed this when they were in office to benefit the North

1863

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“10 percent” Reconstruction plan-which dictated that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. Then, a formal state government would be constructed within the state, and the state would be re-admitted into the Union.

1863

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woman’s loyal league-had worked trying to get congress to pass an amendment prohibiting slavery and when it did, they began to fight for their own rights

1864

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Wade-Davis Bill-in 1864. It required that 50% of a state’s voters take the oath of allegiance and it demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation.Lincoln refused to sign this bill

1865

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Johnson’s Reconstruction plan-on May 29, 1865. It called for special state conventions which were required to: repeal the decrees of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing 13th Amendment. States that agreed to these concessions would be re-admitted.

1865 – 1895

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(a name given to the 30 years after the Civil War by Mark Twain) the political parties in government had balanced out. Few significant economic issues separated the Democrats and Republicans

March 1865

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Freedmen’s Bureau
It provided clothing, medical care, food, and education to both freedmen and white refugees

december 1865

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sharecropping-Plantation owners would rent out pieces of their land to blacks and make the cost of rent higher than the return the land produced. The renters of the land were bound by contract to continue to work the land until debts were repaid to the plantation owner. Unable to repay the debts, blacks began to “jump” their contracts.

1866

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Civil Rights Bill-in March 1866, which gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes. Congress overruled the President’s veto for this bill.

1866

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ex parte milligan-a case where the court ruled that military tribunals could not try citizens even during wartime in areas where the civil courts were open

1866

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Ku Klux Klan-was founded in Tennessee in 1866. It was formed by disgruntled white Southerners who were angered by the success of black legislators. The group worked through intimidation.

1866

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organized in 1866, lasted 6 years and attracted 600,000 members. The purpose of the union was to organize workers across different trades and challenge companies for better working conditions

1866

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originally a pro-Union organization. Freedmen turned this into a network of political clubs that educated members and campaigned for Republican candidates. The League also built black churches and schools, represented black grievances before local employers and governments, and recruited militias to protect black communities from white retaliation.

November 1866

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Black Codes-was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865. These laws aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. The laws imposed harsh penalties on blacks who “jumped” their labor contracts, some of which usually forced the blacks to work for the same employer for one year. The codes also sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations. The codes forbade a black to serve on a jury or to vote. The Codes mocked the idea of freedom and imposed terrible hardships on the blacks who were struggling against mistreatment and poverty to make their way as free people.
The Republicans were strongly opposed to these laws.

1867

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Military Reconstruction-of the South took control of certain functions of the president and it set up a military rule of the South.

1867

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Reconstruction Act-It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states’ constitutions allowed former adult male slaves to vote. The moderate Republican goal was to create voters in Southern states that would vote those states back into the Union and thus free the federal government from direct responsibility for the protection of black rights.

1867

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William Seward-signed a treaty with Russia that gave Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million.Russia sold Alaska to the U.S. because it felt that it was over-expanded in North America. Russia also wanted to strengthen the United States as a barrier against its enemy, Britain. Although the American people were focused on Reconstruction and anti-expansion, they supported the purchase of Alaska because they did not want to offend the Russians, who had helped them during the Civil War.

1867

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Tenure of Office Act in 1867-It required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before he could remove his cabinet members once they had been approved by the Senate

1868

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14th Amendment-The amendment had the following components: 1) Gave civil rights, including citizenship, to the freedmen; 2) Reduced proportionately the representation of a state in Congress and in the Electoral College if it denied blacks the right to vote; 3) Disqualified from federal and state offices former Confederates who, as federal officeholders, had once sworn to support the Constitution of the United States; 4) Guaranteed the federal debt, while the Union assumed all Confederate debts.

1868

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Republican-General Grant
Democratic-Horatio Seymour
Grant won this election

1868

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reviving gory memories of the civil war

1869

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was passed by Congress in 1869. It granted black men the right to vote.

1869

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National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)-founded to battle for women’s rights by ladies like Stanton and Anthony

1870 – 1871

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Force Acts of 1870 and 1871-in response to murders that the Klan had committed. The Acts enabled Federal troops to stop the atrocities of the Ku Klux Klan. The Acts came too late, though, as the Klan had already intimidated many people.

1870

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meant allying with competitors to monopolize a given market.

1870

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used by Morgan when he put his people on the boards of directors of rival companies

1870

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it consolidated and concerted the operations of the previously competing enterprising. cornered the whole petroleum market

1870

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used by Rockefeller to control rivals

1870

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method by Carnegie to combine all phases of manufacturing into one organization. He and his business controlled every aspect of production, from mining to marketing. His goal was to improve efficiency.

1870

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Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)-the white ribbon was its symbol of purity
Willard, a champion of planned parenthood was its leading spirit
Nation also fought for this prohibition movement

1872

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removed political restrictions from most of the former Confederate leaders. Congress also reduced high Civil War tariffs and gave mild civil-service reform to the Grant administration

1872

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erupted in 1872 when Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earnings a lot of money. The company paid off members of Congress and the Vice President.

1872

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Liberal Republican Party met in Cincinnati and chose Horace Greeley as their presidential candidate for the election of 1872. The Democratic Party also chose Greeley as their candidate. The Republican Party continued to put its support behind President Grant. Grant won the election

1873

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Banks gave too many imprudent loans to support over-expansion. When profits failed to materialize, people were unable to pay back their loans.

1875

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was supposed to guarantee equal accommodations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled most of the Act unconstitutional, stating that the 14th Amendment only prohibited government violations of civil rights, not the denial of civil rights by individuals.

1875

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The policy of the Treasury accumulating gold stock to replace the greenbacks. This policy increased the value of the greenback due to its reduction in circulation.

1875

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the principle of giving jobs to your political supporters.

1875

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supported by hard money advocates, required the government to continue to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and to redeem all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879.

1876

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The Republicans chose Rutherford B. Hayes as their presidential candidate for the electionThe Democrats chose Samuel J. Tilden
In the election, Tilden won the popular vote, but he was 1 vote shy from winning in the Electoral College (184 of 185). 20 electoral votes were in dispute in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. Each state had sent two ballot counts to Congress. One ballot count said that the Republicans had won, while the other count said that the Democrats had won.
Controversy arose over which candidate should be awarded the disputed electoral votes.

1877

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was passed by Congress. Contained within the compromise was the Electoral Count Act, which set up an electoral commission consisting of 15 men from the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Supreme Court. The commission ultimately gave the election to Hayes (Republican).
The Democrats were outraged at the outcome of the election, but agreed that Hayes could take office if he withdrew the federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina.
With the Hayes-Tilden deal, the Republican Party abandoned its commitment to racial equality.

1877

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small farmers who rented land from the plantation owners were kept in perpetual debt and forced to continue to work for the owners.

1880

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inclusion of only skilled worked drained the Knights of Labor of its members

1880

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An idea in which an employer could only hire union employees and all of the employees had to be in a union.

1880

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Republican Party chose James A. Garfield as the presidential candidate for the election. Garfield was apart of the Half-Breed faction of the Republican Party. His Vice President, Chester A. Arthur, was apart of the Stalwart faction. The Democrats chose Civil War hero, Winfield Scott.
Garfield won the election , but he was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau at a Washington railroad station. The expected implication of the assassination was that after Arthur took over as president, he would replace the Half-Breed Republican employees with Stalwarts.

1880

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It was led by Terence V. Powderly, and it was started as a secret society. It sought to include all workers, while campaigning for economic and social reform, including and codes for safety and health

1880 – 1890

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Land-grant colleges-formed out of land grants given by government. bound themselves to provide certain services like military training

1880

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naturalism-these writers sought to apply detached scientific objectivity to the study of human beings

1880

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pragmatism-that the truth of an idea was to be tested above all by its practical consequences

1880

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regionalism-sought to chronicle the peculiarities of local ways of life before the coming wave of industrial standardization

1881

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tuskegee institute was taught by Booker T Washington and made this university an ideal place for slave born blacks to research

1882

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stopping Chinese immigration into America.

1883

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to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of merit. The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders.

1883

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made mandatory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission

1884

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Republicans chose James G. Blaine as their presidential candidate for the election 4. The Democrats chose Grover Cleveland. Grover Cleveland was a very honest and admirable man. Cleveland won the election

1886

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Chicago police tried to break up a protest against alleged police brutalities. Someone threw a dynamite bomb, killing several people. 8 anarchists were convicted; 5 were sentenced to death while the other 3 were sent to jail. In 1892, the governor of Illinois, John P. Altgeld, pardoned the 3 who were in prison.
The Knights of Labor was blamed for the incident at this place and as a result, it lost public support

1886

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stated that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce.
interstate Commerce Act
. It prohibited rebates and pools, required the railroads to publish their rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for a short trip than for a long trip over the same line. It also created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the new legislation. The new laws provided a forum where competing businesses could resolve their conflicts in peaceful ways (instead of engaging in price wars

1888

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the Republicans chose Benjamin Harrison as their presidential candidate for the election. The Republicans made tariffs an issue for the election Cleveland won the popular vote, but Harrison still won the election.

1889

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named for its lavish spendings, gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government purchases on silver, and passed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

1890

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City beautiful movement-its proponents wanted the american city not to just look beautiful but to convey a sense of harmony, order and monumentality

1890

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exempted whites from clauses if they had voted in 1860

1890 – 1900

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eventually, state-level legal codes of segregation were enacted. The Southern states also enacted literacy requirements, voter-registration laws, and poll taxes to ensure that Southern blacks could not vote.

1890

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. This significantly raised tariffs and financially hurt farmers. Farmers were forced to buy expensive products from American manufacturers while selling their own products into the highly competitive world markets.
The tariff caused the Republican Party to lose public support and lose their majority in Congress in the congressional elections of 1890.

1890 – 1900

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Settlement House- a house located in a poor, urban area where middle-class people would live and take care of the local community by providing services like healthcare and daycare; became centers of women’s activism and of social reform.

1890

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which forbade business activities that the government deemed as anti-competitive. It also required the government to investigate trusts. The law was ineffective because it contained legal loopholes and it made all large trusts suffer, not just the bad ones.

1890

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was created by Benjamin Harrison, and it forced the government to purchase a certain amount of silver every month. Indebted farmers pushed for the Act because they wanted to cause inflation so they could pay off their debts with cheaper money. People started to exchange their silver for gold from the government. An increase in silver production lead to a significant drain on the Treasury’s gold reserves, which decreased confidence in the country’s finances. Because of this, Cleveland was forced to repeal the Sherman Silver Act Purchase in 1893. J.P. Morgan lent the government $65 million in gold to increase the Treasury’s reserve.

1892

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Populists nominated General James B. Weaver he Populist Party did not win the election. One of the main reasons was that the party supported the black community. The party’s leaders, such as Thomas Edward Watson, felt that a black man had a right to vote. The party counted on many black votes from the South, but many Southern blacks were denied the right to vote through literacy tests and poll taxes. The Southern whites voted against the party because of the party’s equal rights views toward blacks.
Grover Cleveland again ran for president in the election and won, beating out the Populist Party and the Republican Party.

1892

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most memorable of a series of violent worker strikes swept through the nation

1893

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was the United States’ worst economic depression in the 1800s. It was caused by overbuilding, over-speculation, and the agricultural depression.

1893

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World’s Columbian Exposition-Burnham’s project that honored the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ voyage

1894

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lowered tariffs and added a 2% tax on incomes over $4,000. The Supreme Court ruled income taxes unconstitutional in 1895.

1895 – 1910

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Pulitzer’s use of colored comic supplements became known as this

1896

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declaring that “separate but equal” facilities for blacks were legal under the 14th Amendment.

1799 – 1915

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Unit “8”

Populists: grew out of the Farmers’ Alliance. It called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal subtreasury, in which harvested crops were stored until crop prices rose. they also wanted free and unlimited coinage of silver.

frederick jackson turner-writer who spoke about the westward moving experience and the colonizing and taming the great trans-mississippi west

jacob s. coxey-led a protest in Washington in 1894, demanding that the government start a public works program. shut down by president

William McKinley-Marcus Alonzo Hanna was hisinfluential campaign manager. won the election of 1896. Many of his votes came from the East.

marcus alonzo hanna-was Mckinley’s campaign manager. he felt that the prime function of government was to aid business, and he believed in the “trickle down effect” (laborers do well if the business does well). The Republican platform supported the gold standard.

insurrectos
cuban, torched canefields and sugar mills and dynamited passenger trains. their tactics also menaced american interests on the island

james g blaine
published his “Big Sister” policy tried to get the Latin American countries to open their markets to Americans.

richard olney
warned that if Britain went to war with Venezuela, then Britain would be violating the Monroe Doctrine. When Britain disregarded this warning, President Cleveland threatended war. Britain was pre-occupied with other potential wars in Europe, so they chose to avoid a new war and reconcile with the United States

“butcher” weyler
spanish governer of cuba who was oppressing the people

dupuy de lôme
stating that in his opinion the U.S. President-elect was indecisive and irresolute, and that further negotiations with the Cuban insurgents would be futile. The letter somehow reached the Cuban rebels.two days later the Maine lay at the bottom of Havana harbor.

rough riders
us, regiment of volunteers consisted largely of western cowboys and other hardy characters with a sprinkling if ex convicts and polo players
led by leonard wood

josiah strong
wrote Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis and inspired missionaries to travel to foreign nations

alfred thayer mahan
book of 1890, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance; it stimulated the naval race among the great powers.

liliuokalani
queen of hawaii. insisted that native Hawaiian should control the islands.

george dewey
6-ship fleet attacked Spain’s Philippines on May 1, 1898. Dewey attacked and destroyed the 10-ship Spanish fleet at Manila. German ships threatened to attack Dewey’s ships in the Manila harbor (claiming that they wanted to protect German nationals). After several incidents, the potential for conflict with Germany blew over. On August 13, 1898, American troops captured Manila.With the victory in the Philippines, it was thought that Hawaii was needed as a supply base for Dewey. Therefore, Congress passed a joint resolution of Congress to annex Hawaii on July 7, 1898.

emilio aguinaldo
The Filipinos thought that the treaty would give them their independence, like the Cubans. This was not the case and on February 4, 1899, the Filipinos started a rebellion against the occupying American forces. The insurrection was led by …

william h taft
President McKinley appointed the Philippine Commission in 1899 to set up a Filipino government. He genuinely liked the Filipinos, while the American soldiers did not.

john hay
released the Open Door note, which urged foreign powers to respect Chinese commercial rights. Russia was the only major power to not accept it.

theodore (teddy) roosevelt
took over the presidency. Roosevelt felt that the president should lead, boldly. He had no real respect for the checks and balances system among the 3 branches of government. He felt that he may take any action in the general interest of the public that is not specifically forbidden by the Constitution.

muckrakers-were reform-minded journalists who wrote articles in magazines that exposed corruption and scandal. President Roosevelt coined this term. These reporters went after trusts and politicians.

central powers
germany and austria-hungary, turkey and bulgaria

allies
britain, france and russia. later japan and italy

irreconcilables
Isolationist congressmen who did not support the treaty or the League of Nations. Most Americans supported the treaty, though.

louis d. brandeis
further fanned the flames of reform with his incendiary through scholarly book, “other people’s money and how the bankers use it”
first jew to be called to the high bench

francisco (pancho) villa
rival to President Carranza, attempted to provoke a war between Mexico and the U.S by killing Americans

arthur zimmerman
secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance with the Zimmermann note. News of the Zimmermann note leaked out to the public, infuriating Americans.

george creel
led the Committee on Public Information

eugene v debs
socialist candidate of Wobblies

william d (big bill) haywood
IWW leader that was convicted of violating the espionage act

herbert c hoover
the quaker humanitarian head of the food administration, shared his fellow war administrators’ preference for relying on voluntary compliance rather than compulsury edicts

alice paul
led National Woman’s party and protested the war

henry cabot lodge
a critic to the president, came up with fourteen reservations to the Treaty of Versailles. He wanted to give the U.S. more control over how it interacted with other nations and how these nations interacted with it.

ida tarbell-published a devastating depiction of the Standard Oil Company.

Henry Demarest Lloyd-attacked Standard Oil Company with his book “wealth against commonwealth”

Thorstein Veblen-attacked the predatory wealth and conspicuous consumption in his book “the theory of the leisure class.” urged that social leadership pass from these superflous titans to truly useful engineers

Jacob A Riis-wrote about the dirt, disease, vice and misery of New York slums in his book “How the other half lives”

Robert M. (fighting bob) la follette-was a governor of Wisconsin who took control from the corrupt corporations and returned it to the people.

hiram w johnson-helped to break the grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics in 1910

florence kelley-took control of the National Consumers League in 1899 and mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplace.

frances e willard-founder of Women’s Christian Temperance movement

gifford pinchot-chief of the Agriculture Department’s Division of Forestry who Taft fired for insubordination.

john muir-naturalist who worked alongside TR to promote conservation

herbert croly-favored consolidation of trusts and labor unions paralleled by the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in washington

industrial workers of the world (IWW)
had some of the worst working conditions in the country and opposed the war

1800 – 1870

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minerals including gold and silver were discovered in the Rockies, prompting many “fifty-niners” or “Pike’s Peakers” to rush to the mountains in search of the precious metals.mining became all the rage

1850 – 1870

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brought about the idea that farms were “outdoor grain factories.”
drove many marginal farmers off the land, thus swelling the ranks of the new industrial work force

1854

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reservation system
when the treaties at Fort Laramie and at Fort Atkinson established boundaries for the territory of each tribe and attempted to seperate the indians into two great “colonies” to the north and south of a corridor of intended white settlement

1870

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voters could make their choice for office secretly

1870 – 1920

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promoted a brand of progressivism based on christian teachings. they used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions to the urban poor.

1876

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rare indian victory in the plains wars

1877

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the battle where an estimated two hundred indian women, men, and children were killed as well as invading soldiers

1877

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the act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual indian family heads with 60 free acres. if the indians behaced themselves like “good white settlers” they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship in 25 years

1880

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aimed at rallying the Latin american nations behind uncle sam’s leadership and opening latin american markets to yankee traders

1890

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raised barriers against the hawaiian oruduct of sugar

1894

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when eugene v debs helped organize the american railway union of about 150,000 members. federal troops crushed this strike and those who had taken part were arrested

1895 – 1915

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or reconciliaton between the United States and britain .

1896 – 1932

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This time period was characterized by lower voter turnout, weakening of party organizations, and the fading of issues like civil-service reform. New political issues became concern for industrial regulation and the welfare of labor.

1898

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sprang into being to fight the McKinley administration’s expansionist moves. consisted of carnegie, twain, gompers

1898

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us ship that mysteriously blew up in Havana Harbor with a loss of 200 sailors

1898

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proclaimed to the world that when the united states had overthrown spanish misrule it would give the cubans their freedom

1899 – 1901

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chinese resistance where they murdered 200 foreigners and thousands of chinese christians and besieged the foreign diplomatic community in the capital, beijing

1899

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roosevelt’s message to foreign powers asking that they respect Chinese rights and the idea of fair competition (because us wanted to trade with china)

1900

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accorded the puerto ricans a limited degree of popular government but withheld full self rule

1900

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provided that paper currency be redeemed freely in gold

1900 – 1920

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The Democrats had a strong progressive platform that called for stronger antitrust laws, banking reform, and tariff reductions. They favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets, but they did not support social-welfare programs that Roosevelt supported. (wilson)

1901

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gave us a free hand to build the canal but conceded the right to fortify it as well

1901

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concluded that the flag did outrun the constitution and that the outdistanced document did not necessarily extend Puerto Ricans and Filipinos American rights

1901

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when US withdrew from cuba they were forced to write their own constitution

1903

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heavy fines could now be imposed on both the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them

1904

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in case of latin american nations, the united states would intervene, take over the customshouses, pay off the debts and keep the troublesome europeans on the other side of the atlantic

1906

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The act stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines was subject to federal inspection.

1906

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was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabelling of foods and pharmaceuticals.

1907

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where the preservationists lost a major battle when the fed gov allowed the city of San Francisco to build a dam for its municipal water supply in this location

1908

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the Supreme Court ruled that it was constitutional to enact laws that specifically protected women factory workers.

1908

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with japan. it pledged both powers to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the pacific and to uphold the open door in china.

1909

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invalidated a New York law that limited the work day to 10 hours for bakers. The law was eventually upheld in 1917.

Following a series of factory accidents, several states passed stronger laws regulating the working conditions in factories.

1909

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which placed a high tariff on many imports. This angered many Republicans because before he was elected, Taft said that he would lower the tariff.

1910

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voters could directly propose legislation themselves

1910

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enable voters to remove elected officials

1910

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would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people `

1913

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when Taft encouraged Wall Street bankers to invest in foreign areas of strategic interest to the United States. American bankers thus strengthened American defenses and foreign policies, while bringing prosperity to America.

1913

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appointed by the President, oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional Federal Reserve banks. Each reserve bank was the central bank for its region. The final authority of the Federal Reserve Board guaranteed a substantial level of public control. The board could also issue paper money, called Federal Reserve Notes (the U.S. Dollar). Because of this, the amount of money in circulation could be increased as needed for the requirements of business.

1913

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provided for a substantial reduction of rates

1914

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lengthened the Sherman Act’s list of business practices that were deemed objectionable. It also sought to exempt labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution, while legalizing strikes and peaceful picketing.

1914

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empowered a presidentially appointed commission to turn a searchlight on industries engages in interstate commerce

1914

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supported stronger control of trusts, woman suffrage, and programs of social welfare. (tr/progressive republicans)

1914

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President Wilson initially refused to directly intervene with the war in Mexico; he wanted the Mexican citizens to overthrow their government, themselves. After a small party of American sailors was accidentally captured by the Mexicans , Wilson ordered the navy to seize the Mexican port of Vera Cruz.

1914

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Germany started to use submarines in the war

1915

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companies that own part or all of the other companies’ stock in order to extend monopoly control

1915

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one of Germany’s submarines sunk the British ship, killing 128 Americans and other innocent passengers

1916

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established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce

1916 – 1970

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movement of 6 million african americans from south to north and west. lured north and west with hopes for greater economic and political opportunity

1916

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granted federal assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability, as well as restricted child labor on products

1917

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name given to US army force deployed to Europe in WWI commanded by General Pershing

1917

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was created to rally public support of war. It was led by George Creel whose job was to sell America on the war and to sell the world on Wilsonian war goals.

1917

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sought to prevent support of U.S. enemies during wartime.

1917

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to create order over the economic confusion. The Board never had much control, but it set a precedent for how the Federal government would handle the economy in times of crisis.

1917

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german foreign secretary had secretly proposed a german-mexican alliance against the US. it made many americans want to enter the war

1918

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The message declared that WWI was being fought for a moral cause and it called for post-war peace in Europe. The message gave Wilson the position of moral leadership of the Allies.

The first 5 points and their effects were:

1) A proposal to abolish secret treaties pleased liberals of all countries.

2) Freedom of the seas appealed to the Germans, as well as to Americans who distrusted British sea power.

3) A removal of economic barriers among nations was comforting to Germany, which feared postwar vengeance.

4) Reduction of armament burdens was gratifying to taxpayers.

5) An adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of both native people and the colonizers was reassuring to the anti-imperialists.

The largest point, #14, foreshadowed the League of Nations – an international organization that Wilson dreamed would provide a system of collective security.

1918

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first significant engagement of american troops in european war

1918

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One objective was to cut the German railroad lines feeding the western front. Inadequate training left 10% of the Americans involved in the battle injured or killed.

As German supplies ran low and as their allies began to desert them, defeat was in sight for Germany.

1918

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made it illegal to speak out against the government.

1919

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It would contain an assembly with seats for all nations and a council to be controlled by the great powers. Wilson envisioned it as a way to prevent future world wars. In February 1919, the the Big Four agreed to include the creation of this in the treaty.

1919

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it argued that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a danger to the nation.

1919

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The Germans were outraged with the treaty, which spoke more of vengeance than reconciliation. Most of the Fourteen Points were left out of the treaty.

Wilson compromised away some of his Fourteen Points in attempts to salvage the League of Nations.

1920

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which granted the Philippines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established.

1920

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giving all american women the right to vote

1921

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provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care

1924

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:replaced the Quota Act of 1921, cutting quotas for foreigners from 3% to 2%. Japanese were banned from coming to America. Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt from the act, because their close proximity made it easy to attract them when they were needed and it was easy to send them home when they were not needed.
The quota system significantly reduced immigration.
The Immigration Act of 1924 ended the era of unrestricted immigration to the United States.

1913 – 1941

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Racketeers:gangsters who invaded the ranks of local labor unions as organizers and protesters. Organized crime had come to be one of the nation’s biggest business’

“Lost generation”:
hemingway, fitzgerald and other american painters and writers painted this. They found shelter and inspiration in the paris salon of their countrywoman, gertrude stein.

A Mitchell Palmer:-rounded up people who were in question during the red scare

Nicola sacco and bartolomeo vanzetti:-The two men were convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard. Although given a trial, the jury and judge were prejudiced against the men because they were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.

Horace kallen:an intellectual who championed alternative conceptions of the immigrant role in American society, defended newcomer’s right to practice their ancestral customs, vision- the US should provide a protective canopy for ethnic and racial groups to preserve their cultural uniqueness, stressed the preservation of identity, believed pluralism

Randolph bourne: an intellectual who championed alternative conceptions of the immigrant role in American society, advocated greater cross-fertilization among immigrants, believed cosmopolitan interchange was destined to make America “not a nationality but a trans-nationality, a weaving back and forth, with the other lands, of many threads of all sizes and colors,” US should serves as the vanguard of a more international and multicultural age

Al capone:a murderous booze distributor, began 6 years of gang warfare that generated millions of dollars. Capone was eventually tried and convicted of income-tax evasion and sent to prison for 11 years.

John t scopes:was indicted in Tennessee for teaching evolution

Frederick w. Taylor:principles of scientific management increased productivity

Henry ford:father of the moving assembly line (Fordism), created the Model T. By 1930, more than 20 million Model Ts were being driven in the country.

Charles a lindbergh:became the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. His flight energized the new aviation industry.

Margaret sanger:led a birth-control movement.

Sigmund freud:argued that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of emotional problem

H.L. Mencken:attacked marriage, patriotism, democracy, and prohibition in his monthly American Mercury.

F. Scott Fitzgerald :wrote This Side of Paradise in 1920 and The Great Gatsby in 1925.

Ernest hemingway:was among the writers most affected by the war. He responded to propaganda and the overblown appeal to patriotism. He wrote of disillusioned, spiritually numb American expatriates in Europe in The Sun Also Rises (1926).

T.S. Eliot: took up residence in England. In “The Waste Land” (1922), Eliot produced one of the most impenetrable but influential poems of the century

William faulkner:enned a bitter war novel, Soldier’s Pay, in 1926. He then turned his attention to a fictional chronicle of an imaginary, history-rich Deep South county. In powerful books like The Sound and the Fury (1929) and As I Lay Dying (1930), he peeled back layers of time and consciousness from the constricted souls of his ingrown southern characters

Langston hughes:poet who wrote the weary blues

franklin delano roosevelt
He had been born to a wealthy New York family and served as the governor of New York. sought to fix issues following WWI and some of them were very successful while others recieved negative feedback and ruled unconstitutional by the court and others.

eleanor roosevelt
was very active her husband’s political career. She was loved by liberals and hated by conservatives.

harry l hopkins
headed the works progress administration. Provided jobs and income to the unemployed but couldn’t work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

father charles coughlin
opposed FDR’s policies and preached anti-New Deal speeches over the radio
francis e townsend
attracted millions of senior citizens with his plan that each citizen over the age of 60 would receive $200 a month.

huey p (kingfish) long
publicized his “Share Our Wealth” program in which every family in the United States would receive $5,000.

frances perkins
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. She took much flak from her contemporaries

mary mcleod bethune
This woman was a leader in the struggle for racial and gender equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

robert f. wagner
A Democratic senator from New York State from 1927-1949, he was responsible for the passage of some of the most important legislation enacted through the New Deal. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was popularly known as the Wagner Act in honor of the senator. He also played a major role in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act of 1937.

warren g harding
was inaugurated in 1921. He was unable to detect corruption in his own staff. He was a very soft guy in that he hated to say “no,” hurting peoples’ feelings.
albert b fall-an anti-conservationist who was the secretary of the interior who was involved with the teapot dome scandal

calvin coolidge-took over the presidency following Harding’s death. He was extremely shy and delivered very boring speeches.
he did not change the business-friendly policies that Harding had created.

john w davis-democratic parties candidate for the election of 1924

alfred e (“Al”) smith-democratic parties candidate for the election of 1928. He was a Roman Catholic in an overwhelmingly Protestant country.

abraham lincoln brigade
A small group of American volunteers who fought for the Loyalists in the spanish civil war

benito mussolini-took control of Italy in 1922.

adolf hitler-took control of Germany in 1933.

francisco franco-rose against the left-wing republican government in Madrid

cordell hull-succeeded in negotiating pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939.

wendell l willkie-republicans candidate for election of 1940. The Republicans condemned FDR’s alleged dictatorship and they opposed the New Deal’s inefficiencies.

1914

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:to promote the resettlement of american blacks in their own african homeland. Helped newcomer blacks to the northern cities gain self-confidence and self-reliance

1917

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Bolshevik Revolution
The Bolshevik Revolution is the October 1917 Revolution in Russia. In 1917 there were two revolutions. The first was the February Revolution in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and a Provisional Government was put up in place of the Tsarist government. The Provisional Government was not a Marxist/Communist government. The second was the October Revolution in which Lenin and his Bolshevik Part followers overthrew the weak Provisional Government and imposed a Marxist government in Russia. The October Revolution is called the Bolshevik Revolution because that is when the Bolsheviks, later to be known as the Communist Party, took control of the country.

1918 – 1937

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creative expression. They proudly exulted in their black culture and argued for a new negro who was a full citizen and social equal to whites

1919 – 1920

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banned alcohol

1919 – 1925

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emphasis on reading the bible, remained a vibrant force in american spiritual life. It was especially strong in the baptist church and the rapidly growing churches of christ

1919 – 1920

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: of 1919-1920 resulted in a nationwide crusade against people whose Americanism was suspect. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer rounded up people who were in question.

1919

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written to provide for the enforcement of the recently ratified 18th amendment. It was passed by Congress in October, 1919, but was vetoed by President Wilson on October 27. The House again passed the measure, with enough votes to override Wilson’s veto, on the same day and the U.S. Senate did the same on the next day.
The manufacture, transport, export, sale or possession of alcoholic beverages was prohibited within the United States
Alcoholic beverages were those that contained more than one-half percent of alcohol
Federal agents were empowered to investigate and prosecute violators.
The measure retained taxation on alcoholic beverages, despite having made them illegal, and permitted brewers to have products with more than .5% alcohol, provided that the level was reduced to below that mark before being sold to the public.

1920

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sought to keep agricultural prices high by authorizing the government to buy crop surpluses and sell them abroad. President Coolidge vetoed the bill because the bill would’ve cost the government money.

1920

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questioned social conventions and traditional authorities. believed that God was a “good guy” and the universe was a friendly place.

1920

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the secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall, convinced the secretary of the navy to transfer valuable oil-laden land to the Interior Department (the land was owned by the navy). Fall was then bribed with $100,000 to leased the lands to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny.

1921

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in which employees were not required to join unions.

1921

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made it illegal to advocate the use of violence to obtain social change. Traditional American ideals of free speech were restricted.

1922

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raising the tariff from 27% to 35%.

1923

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that women did not deserve special protection in the workplace. They said that the 19th Amendment made women the legal equals of men.

september 1924

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addressed the debt repayment issue. It set up German reparations and allowed for Americans to make private loans to Germany. The Germans used these loans to pay the reparations, which the Allies used to pay the war debts to the Americans.

A downturn in the global economy disrupted the flow of money, and because of this, the United States never fully received its war repayments from Europe.

1925

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south where the spirit of evangelical religion was still robust

1925

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moving assembly line

1925

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:frederick w. Taylor was called the father of this, increased productivity

1927

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all nations at conference will respect the open door policy

1928

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Known as the Pact of Paris, it was ratified by 62 nations. It tried to outlaw war, but it had a big exception: defensive wars were still permitted.

1929

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passed in 1929, was designed to help the farmers by setting up the Federal Farm Board. The Board purchased agricultural surpluses, hoping to stabilize agriculture prices. The Board created the Grain Stabilization Corporation and the Cotton Stabilization Corporation, which also purchased surpluses. The corporations failed after farmers produced too much surplus, exceeding the budget of the Board.

October 1929

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of October 29, 1929, millions of stocks were sold in a panic. By the end of 1929, two months after the initial crash, stockholders had lost $40 billion.

1930

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struck many states in the trans-Mississippi Great Plains. It was caused by drought, wind, and over-farming of the land.

1930

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was intended to be a mild tariff, but Congress tacked on several amendments, turning it into a bill that raised the tariff to 60%. This was the nation’s highest protective tariff during peacetime. The tariff deepened the depression that had already begun in America and other nations, and it increased international financial chaos.

1930

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a nickname for tin-and-paper shantytowns.

1930

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government money is used to “prime the pump” of the economy and encourage consumer spending; this policy intentionally creates a budget deficit.

1931

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which lent money to insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and state and local governments.

1932

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bonus army
converged on the Capitol in the summer of 1932. They demanded that Congress fully pay the deferred bonus that Congress had passed in 1924 (the payment was supposed to be paid in 1945).

After the BEF refused to leave the Capitol, President Hoover sent in the army to evacuate the group. The ensuing riots and incidents brought additional public disdain for Hoover.

1932

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small group of reform minded intellectuals who wrote FDR’s speeches often and other new deal legislation (often young college professors)

1932

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passed a series laws to help improve the state of the country. This Congress

Congress also passed some of FDR’s New Deal programs

1932

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which outlawed antiunion contracts and barred federal courts from stopping strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing.

1933

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making available millions of dollars to help farmers meet their mortgages.

1933 – 1942

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employed about 3 million men in government camps. Their work included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.

1933

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. The FDIC insured individual bank deposits up to $5,000. This ended nation’s epidemic of bank failures.

1933

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in which America would not intervene or interfere with Latin American countries. All marines left Haiti in 1934. America also released some control over Cuba and Panama.

1933

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revealed how thoroughly roosevelt’s early foreign policy was subordinated to his strategy for domestic economic recovery. the delegates hoped to organize a coordinated attack on the global depression but roosevelt did not agree to participate

1933

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Authorized the President to regulate banks, and stimulate the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression. “fair competition” ; labor hrs reduced, employment spread, no more yellow dog contracts

1933 – 1945

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programs, which focused on: relief, recovery, reform. Short-range goals were relief and immediate recovery, and long-range goals were permanent recovery and reform. Some of the New Deal programs gave the President unprecedented powers, which included the ability of the President to create legislation. Many of the programs that gave the President this authority were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

1933

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as designed to lower the tariff. This act allowed the President to lower tariffs with a country if that country also lowered their tariffs.

1933

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was designed to construct dams on the Tennessee River. In addition to providing employment and long-term recovery, these projects would give the government information on exactly how much money was required to produce and distribute electricity. This would be a metric that the government could use to assess the rates charged by private companies.

1935 – 1955

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when the CIO joined with the AF of L. The CIO was led by John Lewis. By 1940, the CIO claimed about 4 million members.

1935

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preventing debt-dodging nations from borrowing further from the United States.

1935 – 1937

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the acts stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. In regards to countries that were involved in a war (victim or aggressor), no American could legally sail on one of their ships, sell or transport munitions to them, or give them loans.

1935

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provided federal-state unemployment insurance. To provide security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to receive regular payments from Washington. Social Security was inspired by the example of some of the more highly industrialized nations of Europe.

1935

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1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

1936

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Nazi Hitler and Fascist Mussolini allied themselves in this

1937

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The Supreme Court was dominated by older ultraconservatives who attempted to stop many of the “socialistic” New Deal programs.

With continous Democrat wins in Congress and the presidency, Roosevelt felt that the American people wanted the New Deal. He argued that the Supreme Court needed to get in line with public opinion. In 1937, Roosevelt proposed legislation that would allow him to add liberal justices to the Court: a new justice would be added for every member over the age of 70 who would not retire. The plan received much negative feedback

1938

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Industries involved in interstate commerce were to set up minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels. Labor by children under the age of 16 was forbidden.

1939

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meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation from the Soviet Union.

1939

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this new act let the European democracies buy American war materials as long as they transported the goods on their own ships and paid in cash. This allowed America to avoid loans, war debts, and the sinking of American ships.

1940

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mobs of Germans attacked German Jews (night of broken glass)

1941

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It discussed the goals of the war. Among other things, it promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants; it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government; and it declared for disarmament of the aggressors.

1941

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under the pretense of defending America. It allowed America to lease arms to the democracies of the world that needed them. (Europeans didn’t have the cash to buy the arms; cash was required by the Neutrality Act of 1939.) When the war was over, the guns and tanks could be returned

1941

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Japanese bombers attacked killing 2,348 people. Most of America’s battleships were significantly damaged, but its 3 Pacific-fleet aircraft carriers were spared because they were out of the harbor.

On December 8, the U.S. declared war on Japan. On December 11, 1941, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. The U.S. followed suit by declaring war on them.

1941

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after learning of the Nazi genocide. It was created to help victims of the Nazis and other Axis powers.

By the war’s end, over 6 million Jews had been murdered in the Holocaust.

1930 – 1970

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douglas macarthur
fought battles in the phillippines. held out against the invading Japanese force for 5 months. The America troops eventually surrendered on April 9, 1942. They were treated with vicious cruelty in the 80-mile Bataan Death March to prisoner-of-war camps. The island fortress of Corregidor held out until it surrendered on May 6, 1942, giving the Japanese complete control of the Philippines.

chester w. nimitz
directed a smaller carrier force, under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, against the powerful invading Japanese fleet in the battle of midway

dwight d. “ike” eisenhower
led an assault on French-held North Africa in November 1942. The invasion was the mightiest waterborne effort up to that time in history. The German-Italy army surrendered in Tunisia in May 1943. hero in war

harry s. truman
gained presidency after FDR died

albert einstein
german born scientist, came up with Manhattan project

WACs
(women’s army corps)

WAVES
(women accepted for volunteer emergency service or navy)

SPARs
(U.S. coast guard women’s reserve)

code talkers
in which they transmitted radio messages in their native languages (incomprehensible to the Axis powers).

joseph stalin-leader of the USSR

jiang jieshi-nationalist chinese leader that was forced to flee to Taiwan

george f kennan-came up with the “containment doctrine,” which tried to explain the behavior of the USSR. This concept stated that the USSR was relentlessly expansionary and that the USSR could be contained by being firm and vigilant.

george c marshall-convinced the Europeans to create a joint plan for their economic recovery.

joseph mccarthy-gained the support of the public. With the Republican victory in the election of 1952, his rhetoric became bolder as his accusations of communism grew.

reinhold niebuhr-a liberal Protestant theologian whose teachings and writings aimed to relate Christian faith to the realities of modern politics. A socialist and pacifist as a young man, he came out of World War II committed to the doctrine of the “just war” and the necessity of resisting dark forces of evil like Hitler and Stalin, while remaining outspoke in defense of progressive social causes

benjamin spock-wrote advice book on child rearing, “the common sense of book of baby and child care”

Dwight Eisenhower-(nicknamed “Ike”) Became a very popular 2 term Republican American president. He was elected because he was a WWII war hero. Ike planned the successful Operation Torch attack and was later appointed to be “Supreme Allied Commander” in Europe (he was placed in charge of all generals for all nations allied with the US). His next big plan was Operation Overlord.

Joseph McCarthy-1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov’t, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; “McCarthyism” was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

Earl Warren-Chief Justice during the 1950’s and 1960’s who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.

Rosa Parks-(LBJ) , United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Martin Luther King Jr.-U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Ho Chi Minh-(1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation.

Ngo Dinh Diem-American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.

Gamal Abdel Naser-President Gamal Abdel Nasser, of Egypt, needed money to build a dam in the upper Nile and flirted openly with the Soviet side as well as the U.S. and Britain, and upon seeing this blatant communist association, Secretary of State Dulles dramatically withdrew his offer, thus forcing Nasser to nationalize the dam.

Nikita Kruschev-Emerged as a leader in the Soviet Union after the death of dictator Josef Stalin. In 1956, he advocated reform and indirectly criticized Stalin and his methods. He became the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1974.

Fidel Castro-Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.

John F. Kennedy-35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963

Betty Friedan-1960s; wrote “The Feminine Mystique,” an account of housewives’ lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women’s rights movement

mississippi freedom democratic party-political party organized by civil rights activists to challenge Mississippi’s delegation to the Democratic National Convention, who opposed the civil rights planks in the party’s platform. Claiming a mandate to represent the true voice of Mississippi, where almost no black citizens could vote, it demanded to be seated at the convention but were denied by party bosses. The effort was both a setback to civil rights activism in the south and a motivation to continue to struggle for black voting rights

black panther party-militant party emerged, It openly carried weapons in the streets of Oakland, California.
malcom x
was an African-American Muslim minister who rallied black separatism. In 1965, he was shot and killed by a rival Nation of Islam.

Racially-motivated violence continued to spread as the militant Black Panther party emerged

eugene mccarthy
1968 democratic party candidate

george c wallace
headed the american independent movement, called for the of segregation of blacks

henry a kissinger
used the Chinese-Soviet tension to play off one country against the other. Nixon and Kissinger wanted to get the Soviet Union and China to pressure North Vietnam into peace

warren e burger
to replace the retiring Earl Warren in 1969. The Supreme Court had four new Nixon-appointed members by the end of 1971.

rachel carson
wrote the Silent Spring that exposed the harmful effects of pesticides.

george mcgovern
won the 1972 Democratic nomination but not the election. He based his campaign on pulling out of Vietnam in 90 days.

students for a democratic society
had created an underground terrorist group called the Weathermen.

The upheavals of the 1960s could be attributed to the three Ps: the youthful population bulge, protest against racism and the Vietnam War, and the apparent permanence of prosperity.

silent majority
people who presumably supported the war

october 5, 1937

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Roosevelt proposed economic embargos against the aggressive dictators. The public opposed this, so FDR did not follow through with his plan.

1939

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General MacArthur pushed the North Koreans past the 38th parallel, but on November 1950, thousands of communist Chinese “volunteers” attacked the U.N. forces, pushing them back to the 38th parallel.

Due to General MacArthur’s insubordination and disagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff about increasing the size of the war, President Truman was removed MacArthur from command on April 11, 1951.

In July 1951, truce discussions dragged out over the issue of prisoner exchange.

1941

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It stated that if the U.S. entered the war, then it would focus its efforts first on Germany. After Germany was defeated, the Allies would focus on Japan.

1941

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to monitor compliance with his executive order that forbade discrimination in defense industries.

1941

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eventually brought the down prices and curbed inflation.

1942

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If the Japanese took this battle, they would be able to directly launch attacks against Pearl Harbor. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz directed a smaller carrier force, under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, against the powerful invading Japanese fleet. The Japanese retreated after losing 4 carriers. this battle was a turning point in the Pacific war. Combined with the Battle of Coral Sea, this U.S. success halted the Japanese.

1942 – 1964

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Mexican agriculture workers who were brought to America to harvest the farms of the West.

1942

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committed to non-violent action approach in regards to black rights

1942

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group that authorized the organization of japanese into concentration camps

1942

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Developed the atomic bomb. Germany was the initial intended target for the atomic bomb while it was being developed.

1942 – 1945

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imposed ceilings on wage increases. Unhappy with the wage ceilings, some labor unions called their members to go on strike.

1942

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which oversaw U.S. war production, American factories produced an enormous amount of weaponry, such as guns and planes. The WPB stopped the manufacture of nonessential items, such as passenger cars.

1943 – 1965

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more than 50 million babies were born by the end of the 1950s. By 1973, the birth rates had dropped below the point necessary to maintain existing population figures.

1943

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It authorized the federal government to operate industries that were under strike, like coal mines and railroads.

1944

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western Allies met and established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to encourage world trade by regulating currency exchange rates. They also founded the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) to promote economic growth in underdeveloped areas. Unlike after WWI, the United States took the lead in creating the important international bodies and supplied most of their funding after WWII. The Soviets declined to participate.

1944

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made money available to send former WWII soldiers to school. This bill raised educational levels and stimulated the construction industry; this helped to create the economic expansion that started in the late 1940s.

June 6, 1944

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the invasion operation took place. The Allies broke through German beach defenses and General George S. Patton led armored divisions across France. Paris was liberated in August 1944.

1945

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Ideological,political and military struggle between US and soviet union (1945-1991)

1945

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which tried to explain the behavior of the USSR. This concept stated that the USSR was relentlessly expansionary and that the USSR could be contained by being firm and vigilant

1945

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opened on April 25, 1945. Representatives from 50 nations came. It included the Security Council, dominated by the Big Five powers (the United States, Britain, the USSR, France, and China), each of whom had the right of veto, and the General Assembly, which could be controlled by smaller countries. The Senate overwhelmingly passed the document on July 28, 1945.

1945 – 1953

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It called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs, and an extension of Social Security. Congress only passed parts of the program: raises to the minimum wage; creation of public housing in the Housing Act of 1949; extension of old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries in the Social Security Act of 1950.

1945 – 1946

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Nazi leaders were tried and punished for war crimes. Punishments included hangings and long jail sentences.

1945

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the German government surrendered unconditionally.

February 1945

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to discuss the war’s end. Plans were made for the occupation of Germany. It was agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania should have free elections. Stalin eventually broke this agreement. The Big Three also announced plans for fashioning a new international peacekeeping organization (the United Nations).

The most controversial decision regarded the Far East. American casualties were expected to be high in the war against Japan, so Stalin agreed to attack Japan after the collapse of Germany. In return, the Soviets were given the southern half of Sakhalin Island, lost by Russia to Japan in 1905, and Japan’s Kurile Islands. The Soviet Union was also given control over the railroads of China’s Manchuria and special privileges in the two key seaports of that area, Dairen and Port Arthur. These concessions gave Stalin control over vital industrial centers of China.

july 1945

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Tokyo surrendered under the condition that emperor Hirohito be allowed to keep his title as emperor. The Allies accepted this condition on August 14, 1945. The formal end to the war came on September 2, 1945, which was proclaimed as

july 17, 1945

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President Truman met with Stalin and the British leader. They issued an ultimatum to Japan: surrender or be destroyed.

1946

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created a 3-member Council of Economic Advisers to advise the president on policies regarding employment, production, and purchasing power.

1947 – 1951

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sprouted on New York’s Long Island in the 1940s, builders revolutionized the techniques of home construction

1947

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over President Truman’s veto. It outlawed “closed” (all-union) businesses, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath. just one of several obstacles that slowed the growth of organized labor in the years following WWII.

1947

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This gave financial support to Greece to resist communist pressures. Truman declared that it must be the policy of the United States to aid any country that was resisting communist aggression.

1948 – 1949

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americans organized this in midst of hair-trigger tension. meant to honor containment

1948

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desegregated the armed forces.

1948

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gave $12.5 billion to 16 European countries. Within a few years, Europe’s economy was flourishing, and the Communist parties had lost ground.

1948

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tried to unionize southern textile workers and steelworkers. It failed in 1948 because it couldn’t overcome fears of racial mixing.

1949

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Geneva Conference
(1954) This agreement ended the war between France and Vietnam. Vietnam was partitioned into the North and South to provide for the two opposing governments. It also set up an election in 1956 which would decide if the government of the south or that of the north would become the head of Vietnam. The USA did not actively participate in or sign on to the accords.

1949

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The pact pledged each nation to regard an attack on one as an attack on all. The pact also marked a departure from American diplomatic convention, a boost for European unification, and a significant step in the militarization of the Cold War.

1950 – 1970

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is a 15-state area stretching along the southern portion of the U.S. from Virginia to California. The population in this region grew nearly twice as fast as in the Northeast

1950 – 1953

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, General MacArthur pushed the North Koreans past the 38th parallel, but on November 1950, thousands of communist Chinese “volunteers” attacked the U.N. forces, pushing them back to the 38th parallel.

Due to General MacArthur’s insubordination and disagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff about increasing the size of the war, President Truman was removed MacArthur from command on April 11, 1951.

In July 1951, truce discussions dragged out over the issue of prisoner exchange., General MacArthur pushed the North Koreans past the 38th parallel, but on November 1950, thousands of communist Chinese “volunteers” attacked the U.N. forces, pushing them back to the 38th parallel.

Due to General MacArthur’s insubordination and disagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff about increasing the size of the war, President Truman was removed MacArthur from command on April 11, 1951.

In July 1951, truce discussions dragged out over the issue of prisoner exchange.

1950

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McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

1950

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was a document created by the National Security Council that outlined America’s national security strategy. It called for quadrupling military spending and using the Containment policy in regards to the Soviet Union

1951

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desegregation
The ending of authorized segregation, or separation by race. After Brown v. Board of Education

1954

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McCarthy went too far and attacked the U.S. Army. Just a few months later, he was condemned by the Senate for “conduct unbecoming a member.

1954 – 1955

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The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

1955

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This was a military doctrine associated with President Eisenhower’s secretary of state, John Foster Dulles. In the event of an attack by the Soviet Union or any other hostile power, the United States would retaliate with massive force, including nuclear weapons. The threat of ______ was designed to deter an enemy from launching an initial attack

1955

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Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned America against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.

1956

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Suez Crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

november 4 1956

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When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.

1957

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Civil Rights Act of 1957
banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal

1957

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Eisenhower Doctrine
US would interne in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help

1957

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Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

1960 – present

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A female movement for gender equality.
in the late 1960s, with the Vietnam War and counterculture, the fights for equality exploded, and feminists rapidly began to try to bring about radical change as quickly as possible. This was the first real occurrence of feminism actually succeeding in its ideas and gaining substantial change for its supporters, as before the 1960s there was little to no success with most people still opposed or hostile to change comparable to this.

1960

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a set of New Dealish economic and welfare measures tried to reduce poverty and racial discrimination.

1961

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President Johnson issued an executive order requiring all federal contractors to take charge against discrimination.

1963 – 1964

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…, written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities

june 1963

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a voter registration drive in Mississippi spearheaded by the collaboration of civil rights groups, the campaign drew the activism of thousands of black and white civil rights workers, many of whom were students from the north, and was marred by the abduction and murder of three such workers at the hands of white racists

july 2, 1964

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banning racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public. It strengthened the federal government’s power to end segregation in schools and other public places. . It also created the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to eliminate discrimination in hiring (race, national origin, gender)

August 10, 1965

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which sought to prohibit minorities from being disenfranchised (through poll taxes, literacy tests, etc)

1966

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right to remain silent

1967

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required construction-trade unions to establish quotas for hiring black employees. This plan changed the definition of “affirmative action” to include preferable treatment on groups, not individuals;

1967

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six-day war
n June 1967, Israel launched a pre-emptive attack on Egypt’s airforce, starting this War. Following the war, Israel gained the territories of the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank.

1968

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where american troops slaughtered innocent children and women in vietnam

1968

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helped him win the Southern vote. This strategy consisted of opposing civil rights for African-Americans.

1970

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raise awarness and encourage leaders to act due to earth

1970

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gave the gov more control over businesses

1970

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in which the National Guard shot 4 students.

1970

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the United States would honor its existing defense commitments but in the future, Asians and other countries would have to fight their own wars without the support of large numbers of American troops

1971

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a leaked, top-secret Pentagon study that documented the deceptions of the previous presidential administrations, in regards to the Vietnam War.

1972 – 1979

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or relaxed tensions between the Soviet Union and China. The United States agreed to sell the Soviets at least $750 million worth of wheat, corn, and other cereals. Two agreements also slowed the arms race between America and the Soviets: 1) An anti-ballistic missile (AMB) treaty limited the U.S. and the Soviet Union to two clusters of defensive missiles. 2) SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) froze the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years.

1973

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It required the president to tell Congress within 48 hours about all commitments of U.S. troops to foreign conflicts.

1980

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a series of riots that emerged when off-duty police officers attacked gay men. Worries in the 1980s of AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases slowed the sexual revolution.

1981

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vietnamization
which was to withdraw 540,000 U.S. troops from South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese, with American money, weapons, training, and advice, would then gradually take over the war. Nixon did not want to end the war; he wanted to win it by other means.

1969 – 1990

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38:
gerald (jerry) ford:replaced vice president agnew who had been taking bribes

phyllis schlafly: 1970s; a new right activist that protested the women’s rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s

james earl (jimmy) carter jr.=Thirty-ninth president of the United States. A peanut farmer and former governor of Georgia, he defeated Gerald Ford in 1976. As president, he arranged the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel in 1978 but saw his foreign policy legacy tarnished by the Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis in 1979. Domestically, he tried to rally the American spirit in the face of economic decline, but was unable to stop the rapid increase in inflation. After leaving the presidency, he achieved widespread respect as an elder statesman and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

milton friedman: He was a famous American economist. He strongly promoted the idea of free trade and condemned government regulation and socialism.

robin morgan: Feminist who thought that this new Sexual Revolution furthered increased oppression (men could take advantage of women)

leonid brezhnev: was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Joseph Stalin.

39:
boll weevils
Term for conservative southern Democrats who voted increasingly for Republican issues during the Carter and Reagan administrations.

Sandinistas
Leftwing anti-American revolutionaries in Nicaragua who launched a civil war in 1979.

Contras
Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. The contras were secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United Sates clandestinely made selling arms to Iran.

Moral Majority
Political action committee founded by evangelical Reverend Jerry Falwell in 1979 to promote traditional Christian values and oppose feminism, abortion, and gay rights. The group was a major linchpin in the resurgent religious right of the 1980s.

Ronald Reagan (1991-2004)
Fortieth president of the United States, 1981-1989. A former actor and California governor, he was elected in 1980 with a pronounced conservative mandate to fix the American economy by scaling back taxes and the role of government in business.

Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013)
Conservative prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. As an ideological partner to President Ronald Reagan, Thatcher enacted economic liberalization reforms and attempted to check the powers of labor unions in Britain.

Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-)
Last leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed control in 1985 and ushered in a period of reforms known as glasnost and perestroika.

Saddam Hussein (1937-2006)
Iraq dictator who led the Ba’ath party in a coup in 1968and ruled in a coup in 1968 and ruled Iraq until the U.S. invasion.

Jerry Falwell (1933-2007)
Christian evangelical reverend and radical right-wing traditionalist. In 1979, Falwell founded the Moral Majority, a political action committee dedicated to moral values and in opposition to feminism and gay rights.

Sandra Day O’ Connor (1930-)
The first female justice on the Supreme Court. A graduate of Stanford Law School,, she served as an attorney, jurist, and politician in Arizona before being appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1981.

George H. W. Bush (1924-)
Forty-first president of the United States, 1989-1993. A former congressman diplomat, businessman, Republican party chairman, and director the CIA, Bush served for eight years as Reagan’s vice president before being elected president in 1988.

Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007)
First president of Russia, who took over as the former Soviet republic became independent in 1991.

Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)
Anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress. After spending twenty-seven years in prison in South Africa, Mandela became the first black president of South Africa in 1994, dramatically signaling the end of racial apartheid in the country.

Manuel Noriega (1935-)
Panamanian general and dictator from 1983 to 1989. Noriega was ousted from power after the U.S. invasion in late 1989, convicted in the United States of drug trafficking, and imprisoned in Miami, Florida.

Clarence Thomas (1948-)
The second black American to serve on the Supreme Court, Thomas is a conservative justice who adheres to constitutional interpretation based on the doctrine of originalism.

40:

William Jefferson (“Bill”) Clinton-Forty-second president of the United States. A former Arkansas governor and founding member of the Democratic Leadership Council, he promoted “third way” politics and distanced his policies from traditional Democratic programs. He signed the Welfare Reform Act in 1996 to fulfill a campaign promise to “end welfare as we know it.” He was the first Democrat to be reelected since Franklin Roosevelt and first president to be impeached since Andrew Johnson.

H. Ross Perot-Texas billionaire businessman who ran populist campaigns for the presidency in 1992 and 1996. In 1992, he garnered 19 percent of the popular vote, probably throwing the election to Bill Clinton. His campaigns represented anti- establishment sentiment and desires for “common sense” governance.

Hillary Rodham Clinton-Democratic senator from New York who, in 2008, became the first highly competitive female candidate for president. A lawyer and political activist, she was First Lady from 1993 to 2001, and then became the first former First Lady to serve in elected office when she was elected to the Senate. She tried unsuccessfully to win the Democratic nomination for president in 2008.

Newt Gingrich-Republican congressman from Georgia who served as speaker of the house from 1995 to 1999. As the author of the “Contract with America, he led the Republican “revolution” of 1994.”

Robert Dole-Republican senator from Kansas who ran unsuccessfully against Bill Clinton in 1996. He had previously been the Republican vice-presidential nominee in 1976 and served as senate minority leader during the 1980s and 1990s.

Monica Lewinsky-White House intern with whom President Bill Clinton had an extra-marital affair in the late 1990s. She was the center of a protracted scandal during the second Clinton term.

41:

John McCain
Arizona senator and war hero who was runner up to George W. Bush for the GOP presidential nomination in 2000 and was the nominee in 2008

Sarah Palin
An American politician, commentator, and author who served as the ninth Governor of Alaska, from 2006 to 2009.

George W. Bush
An American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Richard Cheney
An American politician and businessman who was the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, under President George W. Bush.

Nancy Pelosi
Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives and served as the 60th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2007 to 2011.

Barack Obama
The 44th and most recent President of the United States before the Trump was elected, and the first African American to hold the office.

Joseph R. Joe Biden
47th and most recent Vice President of the United States before Trump was elected, jointly elected with President Barack Obama,

Al Qaeda
Arabic for “The Base,” an international alliance of anti-Western Islamic Fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union. The group was headed by Osama bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States from its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. Since the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the launch of the “global war on terror,” the group has been weakened but still poses significant threats around the world.

Tea Party
A grassroots conservative political movement mobilized in opposition to Barack Obama’s fiscal, economic, and healthcare policies. Named after the Boston Tea Party of the Revolutionary Era, Tea Party protestors first demonstrated in early 2009, and they grew steadily in visibility and power as a pressuring force within the Republican Party through the 2010 midterm election and beyond.

1970 – 1980

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a movement espoused by Reagan, a huge conservative movement

1970

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when war time economic growth and prosperity came to a near halt, giving way to inflation and stagnation

1972

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revealed the president giving orders, six days after the watergate scandal, to use the CIA to hold back an inquiry by the FBI

1972

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it was discovered that the Nixon administration was involved in many other cases of corruption and “dirty tricks.” five men were arrested for planting electronic bugs in the democratic party’s headquarters. it was discovered that there had also been forging documents, using Internal Revenue service to harass innocent citizens and making FBI and CIA cover their tricks.

1973

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the court struck down laws prohibiting abortion arguing that a women’s decision to terminate a pregnancy was protected by right of privacy

1975

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declared that the equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex

1978

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A successful California state ballot initiative that capped the state’s real estate tax at 1 percent of assessed value.

1979

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carter’s speech chiding his citizens for falling into a moral and spiritual crisis and for being too concerned with material goods

1979

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(strategic arms limitation talks) agreements, limiting the level of lethal strategic weapons n the soviet and american arsenals

1980 – 1981

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Economic theory that underlay Ronald Reagan’s tax and spending cuts. Contrary to Keynesianism, this theory declared that government policy should aim to increase the supply of goods and services, rather than the demand for them. It held that lower taxes and decreased regulation would increase productivity by providing increased incentives to work, thus increasing productivity and the tax base.

1981

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a group of anti-American Muslim militants stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took hostages, demanding that the U.S. return the exiled shah who had arrived in the U.S. two weeks earlier for cancer treatments. Carter first tried economic sanctions on Iran; this did not work. He then tried a commando rescue mission, but that had to be aborted.

23 march 1983

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Reagan administration plan announced in 1983 to create a missile-defense system over American territory to block a nuclear attack. Derided as “Star Wars” by critics, the plan typified Reagan’s commitment to vigorous defense spending even as he sought to limit the size of government in domestic matters.

1985

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Nonprofit organization of centrist Democrats (having moderate political views; new democrats) founded in the mid-1980s. The group attempted to push the Democratic party toward pro-growth, strong defense, and anti-crime policies. Among its most influential early members was Bill Clinton, whom it held up as an example of “third way” politics (tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of right-wing economic and left-wing social policies)

1985

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Meaning “openness,” a cornerstone along with perestroika of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s. These policies resulted in greater market liberalization, access to the West, and ultimately the end of communist rule.

1985

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Meaning “restructuring,” a cornerstone along with glasnost of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s

1986

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scandal that erupted after the Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran in hopes of freeing American hostages in Lebanon; money from the arms sales was used to aid the Contras (anti-Communist insurgents) in Nicaragua, even though Congress had prohibited this assistance. Talk of Reagan’s impeachment ended when presidential aides took the blame for the illegal activity.

1987

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Arms limitation agreement settled by Reagan and Gorbachev after several attempts. It banned all of these types of missiles from Europe and marked a significant thaw in the Cold War.

October 19, 1987

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October 19, 1987. Date of the largest single-day decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average until September 2001. The downturn indicated instability in the booming business culture of the 1980s but did not lead to a serious economic recession.

1989

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Created a free-trade zone bw Mexico, Canada, & US (eliminated tariffs bw the countries). A symbol of the increased reality of a globalized marketplace, the treaty passed despite opposition from protectionists and labor leaders.

1990

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Landmark law signed by President George H.W. Bush that prohibited discrimination against people with physical or mental handicaps. I represented a legislative triumph for champions of equal protections to all.

1990

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Series of sandals during the Clinton administration that stemmed from a failed real estate investment the Clintons were alleged to have illegally profited. The accusations prompted the appointment of a special federal prosecutor, though no charges.

1991

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U.S. led multicounty military engagement in January and February of 1991 that drove Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi army out of neighboring Kuwait.

December 21, 1993 – September 20, 2011

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(1993-2010) the policy affecting homosexuals in the military. Compromise bw the standing prohibition against homosexuals in the armed forces & President Clinton’s push to allow all citizens to serve regardless of sexual orientation. Military authorities forbidden to ask about a service member’s orientation, and gay service personnel could be discharged if they publicly revealed their homosexuality. (At Pres Obama’s urging, Congress repealed this in 2010, permitting gays to serve openly in uniform.)

1994

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led by Newt Gingrich to attack Clinton’s liberal failures; promised all-out assault on budget deficits/radical reductions in welfare programs; Multipoint program offered by conservative Republican candidates and sitting politicians in the 1994 midterm election. The platform proposed smaller govt, congressional ethics reform, term limits, greater emphasis on personal responsibility, & a general rejection of the Democratic party. This was a blow to the Clinton administration and led to the Republican party’s takeover of both houses of Congress for the first time in half a century.

1995

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Truck-bomb explosion that killed 168 ppl in a federal office building on April 19, 1995. The attack was perpetrated by right-wing and antigovt militant Timothy McVeigh, who was later executed by the US govt for the crime. Vengeance for a standoff in Texas bw federal agents and a fundamentalist sect known as the Branch Davidians.

1995

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An international body to promote and supervise liberal trade among nations. Successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, it marked a key world trade policy achievement of the Clinton administration

1996

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Legislation passed by a conservative Congress that made deep cuts in welfare grants and required able-bodied welfare recipients to find employment. Part of Clinton’s campaign platform in 1992, the reforms were widely seen by liberals as an abandonment of key New Deal / Great Society provisions to care for the impoverishe

1997

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International treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It was negotiated and opened for signatories in 1997 and took effect in 2005. Although it was signed by 169 out of 192 countries, the Bush administration rejected the plan as too costly in 2001.

1998

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Political sex scandal that resulted in Clinton’s impeachment and trial by Congress. In 1998, Clinton gave sworn testimony in a sexual harassment case that he’d never engaged in sexual activity w/ White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Prosecutors discovered evidence Clinton had lied under oath about the affair, to which he admitted, Repubs in Congress began impeachment proceedings. Although Clinton wasn’t ultimately convicted by the Senate, the scandal put a lasting blemish on his presidential legacy.

2001

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2001; Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, in which nineteen militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the twin towers of the World trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly three thousand people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.

2001

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Controversial prison facility constructed after the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. Located on territory occupied by the US military, but not technically part of the United States, the facility serves as an extra-legal holding area for suspected terrorists.

2001

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2001; An education bill created and signed by the George W. Bush administration. Designed to increase accountability standards for primary and secondary schools, the law authorized several federal programs to monitor those standards and increased choices for parents in selecting schools for their children. The program was highly controversial, in large part because it linked results on standardized tests to federal funding for schools and school districts.

2001

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2001; Legislation passed shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, that granted broad surveillance and detention authority to the government.

2003

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Cabinet-level agency created in 2003 to unify and coordinate public safety and antiterrorism operations within the federal government.

2003

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Refers to weapons – nuclear, biological, and chemical – that can kill large numbers of people and do great damage to the built and natural environment. The term was used to refer to nuclear weapons during the Cold War. The Bush administration’s claims that Saddam Hussein had developed WMD provided the rationale for the United States’ invasion of Iraq in 2003. These weapons were never found after the invasion.

2004

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A detention facility near Baghdad, Iraq. Under Saddam Hussein, the prison was the site of infamous torturing and execution of political dissidents. In 2004, during the US occupation of Iraq, the prison became the focal point of a prisoner-abuse and torture scandal after photographs surfaced of American soldiers mistreating, torturing, and degrading Iraqi war prisoners and suspected terrorists. The scandal was one of the several dark spots on the image of the Iraq War and led to increased criticism of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.

2005

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2005; The costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States, which killed nearly two thousand Americans. The storm ravaged the Gulf Coast, especially the city of New Orleans, in late August 2005. In new Orleans, high winds and rain caused the city’s levees to break, leading to catastrophic flooding, particularly in the city’s most impoverished wards. A tardy and feeble response by local and federal authorities exacerbated the damage and led to widespread criticism of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

2008

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The inverse of “leveraging,” whereby businesses increase their financial power by borrowing money (debt) in addition to their own assets (equity). In times of uncertainty or credit tightening, the same businesses seek to improve their debt-to-equity ratios by shedding debt through the sale of assets purchased with borrowed money.

2009

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2009; Among the earliest initiatives of the Obama administration to combat the Great Recession. It was based on the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes that called for increased government spending to offset decreased private spending in times of economic downturn. The act was controversial from the outset, passing with no Republican votes in the House and only three in the Senate, and helping to foster the “Tea Party” movement to curb government deficits, even while critics on the left argued that the act’s $787 billion appropriation was not enough to turn the economy around.

2010

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Name of the original protest that launched the populist, anti-Wall Street “Occupy” movement in late 2010 and early 2011. Youthful radicals pitched tents and occupied Zuccotti Park in New York’s financial district beginning in September 2010 to protest inequality and corporate political power. This demonstration inspired similar occupations in many other cities.

2010

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2010; Also known as “Obamacare,” the act extended healthcare insurance to some 30 million Americans, marking a major step toward achieving the century-old goal of providing universal healthcare coverage.

2010

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2010; Also known as the Dodd-Frank Act, after its Democratic sponsors, Connecticut senator Christopher Dodd and Massachusetts representative Barney Frank. In an effort to avoid another financial crisis like the Great Recession, the act updated many federal regulations affecting the financial and banking systems and created some new agencies, such as the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.

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