Atoms, the Periodic Table, Drawing Bohr Models & more review!
Matter has mass and takes up space. • Atoms are basic building blocks of matter, and cannot be chemically subdivided by ordinary means.
What’s an atom made of? • Even though an atom is really small, it is made of even smaller particles. • It’s basically made of 3 tiny subatomic particles: • Protons • Neutrons • Electrons
Parts of an Atom • Proton • in the nucleus • + ( positive) charge • 1 amu
Parts of an Atom • Neutronin the nucleus • 0 (no) charge1 amu
Parts of an Atom • Electron • in the electron cloud • – (negative) charge0 amu
An Atom’s Parts • The center of an atom is called the nucleus. • The nucleus contains 2 types of particles: • Protons = positive (+) charge • Neutrons = no charge, neutral • This means the nucleus is always positive.
The Outside of the Atom • Surrounding the nucleus is a cloud of electrons • Electrons: • spin quickly • Are negatively (-) charged • are very small. • Have a mass of 0 AMU.
Overall Balance • To review, an atom is made up of 3 types of particles which are: • Protons (+) • Neutrons (0) • Electrons (-) • Notice that the protons and electrons have opposite charges…what does this mean about the overall balance of an atom? • Nucleus (+ charge) = Electron (- charge)
REVIEW: ATOMS: • The smallest piece of an element which still has the properties of that element is called an atom. • Central core is called a NUCLEUS , and has a + charge. • It is surrounded by an Electron Cloud which has a – charge. • These 2 parts balance each other out so that the atom is electrically neutral(or has NO electric charge)
The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number. • The elements in the periodic table are arranged according to increasing atomic number. • It is the number of protons that determines the atomic number: H (element hydrogen) = 1. • The number of protons in an element is constant (H=1, for 1 proton, 2= He helium, for 2 protons… and so on. Argon: Ar is number 18)
This procedure NEVER changes. • The protons are the atomic number. • They identify the element. • The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons so that the element is electrically stable • (or balanced) • The number of protons IS the Atomic Number
Mass Number: the sum of protons ADDED to the neutrons. • Mass number can vary for the same element, if the element has different numbers of neutrons. • When this happens, these forms of an element are called isotopes. • Atomic Mass is the weighted AVERAGE of the masses of ALL the natural occurring isotopes
Quick Review: • ATOMIC MASS: The mass of an atom depends on the number of protons & neutrons it contains. It is the weighted AVERAGE. • AMU = Atomic mass unit • Mass number itis the sum of the protons + neutrons. • Neutrons = mass number – atomic number • ( remember: Atomic Number = NUMBER of protons, which = NUMBER of electrons)
What about electrons & shells? • The region around the nucleus is called the electron cloud. • The electrons occupy certain energy levels. • The farther an energy level from the nucleus, the more energy the electrons will have in it. • 1st level = 2 electrons • 2nd level= 8 electrons • 3rd level = holds 8 but 18 electrons are allowed
You’ve got your Periods… • Periods = rows • From left to right • What do elements in a row have in common? • the same number of electron shells • Every element in Period 1 (1st row) has 1 shell for its electrons (H & He) • All of the elements in period 2 have two shells for their electrons. • It continues like this all the way down the table
And You’ve got your groups • Column = group = families • What do elements in a group have in common? • samenumber of valence electrons (electrons in the outer shell) • Every element in group 1 (1st column) has 1 valence electron • Every element in group 2 has 2 valence electrons. • In fact, if you know the group’s number, you automatically know how many valence electrons it has!
Group Labels • The transition elements get grouped together as the “B” elements, or groups #1B – 8B. • All of the other elements are “A” elements, with groups #1A – 8A. • These are also called Families, and Families stick together! • Using this labeling system will tell you exactly how many valence electrons are in the atoms.
1 valence electron Very Reactive Li , Na , K , Rb, Cs, Fr Family #1 or 1A: Alkali Metals
2 valence electrons veryreactive, but less than alkali metals Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra Family #2 or 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals
3 valence electrons in the outer energy level One metalloid and 4 metals Reactive Solidat room temperature Most common element in this group is aluminum B, Al, Ga, In, Tl Group 13: The Boron Group
4 valence electrons 1 metal, 1 metalloid, and 2 nonmetals. This family is incredibly important in the field of technology. C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb #14 or 4A: Carbon Family
5 valence electrons 2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids, 1 metal Reactivity varies N, P, As, Sb, Bi #15 or 5A: Nitrogen Family
6 valence electrons O, S, Se, Te, Po 3 nonmetals, 1 metalloid, 1 metal reactive Most members form covalent (sharing bonds) compounds Must share 2 electrons with other elements to form compounds. #16 or 6A: Oxygen Family
7 valence electrons F, Cl, Br, I, At veryreactive They are very reactive because have 7 valence electrons, this means they are ALMOST full and can combine with many elements. Nonmetals Halogen elements combine with metals to form compounds called salts. Family #17 or 7B: Halogens
8 valence electrons (except He which only has 2) “Happy” because their outer electron shell is filled! NON REACTIVE (inert)gases Nonmetals NO bonding with other elements He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe Family #18 or 8A: Noble Gases
Hydrogen: stands alone • Gas, • reactive, • 1 electron in outer level. • Hydrogen does not match properties of any single group so it is placed above Group 1. • It can give it’s electron away with ionic bonding, • or share it’s electron in covalent bonding
1-2 valence electrons Less reactive than alkaline earth metals because they don’t give away their electrons as easily Bottom 2 row are the Lanthanide & Actinide series Family #3-12 (1B-8B): Transition Metals
Lanthanide Series: shiny reactive metals Most found in nature Actinides Series: radioactive and unstable Most are man-made & not stable in nature Family #3-12 (1B-8B): Transition Metals
How to Draw Bohr Model Diagrams You will need to know this For the Quiz tomorrow
Bohr Diagrams Find your element on the periodic table. Determine the number of electrons – it is the same as the atomic number. This is how many electrons you will draw.
Bohr Diagrams Find out which period (row) your element is in. Elements in the 1st period have one energy level. Elements in the 2nd period have two energy levels, and so on. www.chem4kids.com
Bohr Diagrams C6P +6N 0 Draw a nucleus with the element symbol, proton number & neutron total inside. Carbon is in the 2nd period, so it has two energy levels, or shells. Draw the shells around the nucleus.
Bohr Diagrams C6P +6N 0 Add the electrons. Carbon has 6 electrons. The first shell can only hold 2 electrons.
Bohr Diagrams C6P +6N 0 Since you have 2 electrons already drawn, you need to add 4 more. These go in the 2nd shell. Add one at a time -starting on the right side and going counter clock-wise.
Bohr Diagrams C Check your work. You should have 6 total electrons for Carbon. Only two electrons can fit in the 1st shell. The 2nd shell can hold up to 8 electrons. The 3rd shell can hold 18, but the elements in the first few periods only use 8 electrons.
Bohr Diagrams: You Try It! C Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne • K
Bohr Diagrams H H1P +0N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H – 1 electron • He • O • Al • Ne • K
Bohr Diagrams He He2P +2N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H • He – 2 electrons • O • Al • Ne • K
Bohr Diagrams O O8P +8N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O – 8 electrons • Al • Ne • K
Bohr Diagrams Al Al13P +14N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al – 13 electrons • Ne • K
Bohr Diagrams Ne Ne10P +10N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne – 10 electrons • K
Bohr Diagrams K K19 P +20 N 0 Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne • K – 19 electrons
Chp 14 Bonding:Little Book pg 8 Show the arrows for ionic bonding & the ion chargesShow the bonding circles for covalent bonding