1 – Sample Derivation
1 – Sample Derivation

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Derivation of Lorentz Transformations
Use the fixed system K and the moving system K’ At t = 0 the origins and axes of both systems are coincident with system K’ moving to the right along the x axis. A flashbulb goes off at the origins when t = 0. According to postulate 2, the speed of light will be c in both systems and the wavefronts observed in both systems must be spherical. K ,K’ Title changed to include Lorentz Transformation Changes “system” in second bullet to “systems”; and, bolded and ital. “coincident” Moved K and K’ together noting it as K,K’

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Derivation (con’t) Spherical wavefronts in K:
Note: these are not preserved in the classical transformations with

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Derivation (con’t) Let x’ = (x – vt) so that x = (x’ + vt’)
By Einstein’s first postulate: The wavefront along the x,x’- axis must satisfy: x = ct and x’ = ct’ Thus ct’ = (ct – vt) and ct = (ct’ + vt’) Solving the first one above for t’ and substituting into the second…

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Derivation of the Lorentz transformation
The simplest linear transformation Principle of relativity Consider expanding light is spherical, then light travels a distance Substitute t from the lower to the upper equation Divide each equation by c Solve for

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Find transformation for the time t’

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The complete Lorentz Transformations Including the inverse (i
The complete Lorentz Transformations Including the inverse (i.e v replaced with –v; and primes interchanged)

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S 2.4. # 11. Show that both Eqs. (2.17) and (2.18) reduce
to the Galilean transformation when v<<c. S Eqs. (2.17) Eqs. (2.18)

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Remarks If v << c, i.e., β ≈ 0 and ≈ 1, we see these equations reduce to the familiar Galilean transformation. Space and time are now not separated. For non-imaginary transformations (which is required to have physical sense), the frame velocity cannot exceed c.

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‘ 100 290 (Note: values are somewhat changed compared to #12)

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2.4 #13 We require Plugging values for Events 1 and 2 and solving the equation for v, velocity of K’ relative to K, we find v= – c/2.

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2.5: Time Dilation and Length Contraction
Consequences of the Lorentz Transformation: Time Dilation: Clocks in K’ run slow with respect to stationary clocks in K. Length Contraction: Lengths in K’ are contracted with respect to the same lengths stationary in K.

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Same location (spark “on” then off”)
Time Dilation To understand time dilation the idea of proper time must be understood: The term proper time,T0, is the time difference between two events occurring at the same position in a system as measured by a clock at that position. Same location (spark “on” then off”)

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Beginning and ending of the event occur at different positions
Time Dilation Not Proper Time spark “on” then spark “off” Beginning and ending of the event occur at different positions

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Time Dilation with Mary, Frank, and Melinda
Frank’s clock is at the same position in system K when the sparkler is lit in (a) and when it goes out in (b). Mary, in the moving system K’, is beside the sparkler at (a). Melinda then moves into the position where and when the sparkler extinguishes at (b). Thus, Melinda, at the new position, measures the time in system K’ when the sparkler goes out in (b).

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According to Mary and Melinda…
Mary and Melinda measure the two times for the sparkler to be lit and to go out in system K’ as times t’1 and t’2 so that by the Lorentz transformation: Note here that Frank records x2– x1 = 0 in K with a proper time: T0 = t2 – t1 or with T ’ = t’2 – t’1

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Time Dilation: Moving Clocks Run Slow
1) T ’ > T0 or the time measured between two events in moving system K’ is greater than the time between the same events in the system K, where they are at rest: time dilation. 2) The events do not occur at the same space and time coordinates in the two systems 3) System K requires 1 clock and K’ requires 2 clocks.

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Length Contraction To understand length contraction the idea of proper length must be understood: Let an observer in each system K and K’ have a meter stick at rest in their own system such that each measures the same length at rest. The length as measured at rest is called the proper length. Added “their own system”; changed measure to measures

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What Frank and Mary measure in their own reference frames
Each observer lays the stick down along his or her respective x axis, putting the left end at xℓ (or x’ℓ) and the right end at xr (or x’r). Thus, in system K, Frank measures his stick to be: L0 = xr – xℓ Similarly, in system K’, Mary measures her stick at rest to be: L’0 = x’r – x’ℓ =L0

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What Frank and Mary measure for a moving stick
Frank in his rest frame measures the length of the stick for Mary’s frame moving with relative velocity. Thus, according to the Lorentz transformations : It is assumed that both ends of the stick are measured simultaneously, i.e, tr = tℓ and =>tr – tℓ =0 Here Mary’s proper length is L’0 = x’r – x’ℓ and Frank’s measured length is L = xr – xℓ

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Frank’s measurement So Frank measures the moving length as L given by
but since both Mary and Frank in their respective frames measure L’0 = L0 i.e. the measured length for the moving stick shrinks and L0 > L.

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A “Gedanken Experiment” to Clarify Length Contraction
Figure 2.11 (a) Mary, in system K´, ﬂashes a light down her x´ axis along a stick at rest in her system of length L0, which is the proper length. The time interval for the light to travel down the stick and back is 2L0/c. (b) Frank, in system K, sees the stick moving, and the mirror has moved a distance vt1 by the time the light is reﬂected. By the time the light returns to the beginning of the stick, the stick has moved a total distance of vt2. The times can be compared to show that the moving stick has been length contracted by L= L0 √1– v2 ⁄ c2.

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2.5 #18

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Example 2.5 #22

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2.5 #22

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2.5 #28 2

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Problem 100,ch.2

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Albert Einstein lecturing on the special theory of relativity
Albert Einstein lecturing on the special theory of relativity. Photograph: AP

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Taking differentials of the Lorentz transformation, relative velocities may be calculated:

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So that… defining velocities as: ux = dx/dt, uy = dy/dt, u’x = dx’/dt’, etc. it is easily shown that: With similar relations for uy and uz:

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The Lorentz Velocity Transformations
In addition to the previous relations, the Lorentz velocity transformations for u’x, u’y , and u’z can be obtained by switching primed and unprimed and changing v to –v:

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2.7: Experimental Verification
Time Dilation and Muon Decay Figure 2.18: The number of muons detected with speeds near 0.98c is much different (a) on top of a mountain than (b) at sea level, because of the muon’s decay. The experimental result agrees with our time dilation equation.

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Atomic Clock Measurement
Figure 2.20: Two airplanes took off (at different times) from Washington, D.C., where the U.S. Naval Observatory is located. The airplanes traveled east and west around Earth as it rotated. Atomic clocks on the airplanes were compared with similar clocks kept at the observatory to show that the moving clocks in the airplanes ran differently.

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Flight time (41.2 h) (48.6 h) The time is changing in the moving frame, but the calculations must also take into account corrections due to general relativity (Einstein). Analysis shows that the special theory of relativity is verified within the experimental uncertainties.

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