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Integrals of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

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Integration Guidelines 1.Learn your rules (Power rule, trig rules, log rules, etc.). 2.Find an integration formula that resembles the integral you are trying to solve ( u – substitution should accomplish this goal). 3.If u -substitution does not work, you may need to alter the integrand (long division, factor, multiply by the conjugate, separate the fraction, or other algebraic techniques). 4.When all else fails, use your TI-89.

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Power Rule for Integrals for n ≠ -1 The power rule is not valid for n = -1 because: (meaningless)

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Derivative and Antiderivatives that Deal with the Natural Log However, we know the following to be true: This shows that ln x is an antiderivative of 1/x. Or: But, thus formula is only valid for x>0 (where ln x is defined). How can we have an antiderivative on its full domain?

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Indefinite Integral of y = 1/x If x ≠ 0, then This is valid because we proved the following result:

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Derivative and Antiderivatives that Deal with the Exponentials We know the following to be true: This shows the antiderivative of a x : As long as a>0 (where ln a is defined), this antiderivative satisfies all values of x. Solve for a x : (Constant Rule in reverse)

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Indefinite Integral of Exponentials If a > 0, then If a = e, then

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Example 1 Find. Define u and du: Substitute to replace EVERY x and dx: Solve for dx Substitute back to Leave your answer in terms of x. Integrate.

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Example 2 Find for x>1. Define u and du: Substitute to replace EVERY x and dx: Solve for dx Substitute back to Leave your answer in terms of x. Integrate.

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Example 3 Find. Do not forget about all of your old techniques

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Example 4 Find x – 3 x x2x2 -3x 2x2x 2 -6 4 Rm Perform Polynomial Division. x 2 – x – 2 Thus:

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