What is the chemical formula of Hydrocyanic Acid||Chemical formulas || Chemistry
What is the chemical formula of Hydrocyanic Acid||Chemical formulas || Chemistry

3. Chemical Reactions

Naming Acids

Acids, for the most part, are covalent compounds that begin with a hydrogen.

Naming Acids

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concept

Naming Acids

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before we start naming acids, let’s first talk about what exactly is an acid Now? An acid is usually a Covalin compound, beginning with a hydrogen ion. So hydrogen ion in this case is H plus. And another name for this hydrogen ion is called the hydro knee. Emma, I on not going back to Kobe on what exactly is meant by Covalin compound? Well, a co violent compound is a compound that contains Onley. Non metals bonded together. Now, if you don’t remember who the non metals are, make sure you go back and take a look at my videos on the periodic table and the classifications off the elements that why within it, if we take a look here, some common types of acids, all of them are covalin because all of them possess non metals together. And since they’re all co violent, we also see next that they all begin with hydrogen that tells us that they all represent acids. So hcl h n l to h two s 04 We see that some of them are pretty simple, like HCL, and some of them are pretty complicated, like h three people. Four, we’ll talk about the different types of acids later on and the rules associated with naming them. Now, remember, we said that they usually begin with the hydrogen ion usually does not mean always. And with chemistry, you’re gonna see that exceptions do pop up here and there. Ah, good exception to this is acetic acid. Now acetic acid could be drawn to different ways. The first way goes along with the definition we have. It starts with the hydrogen, and it’s Covalin because it only has non metals. But another way to write acetic acid is ch three C O. H. In this case, the hydrogen ion is actually written in the back. Okay, so this is an exception to our definition where this is still an acid, but it doesn’t begin with the hydrogen ion. Now that we know the basic structure of an acid, let’s move on to some videos and let’s tackle the different types of assets that exist, and the ways of naming them

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Naming Acids

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So here. Let’s take a look at binary acids now. Binary acids. Since their acid, they are also represented as Covalin compounds, and they’re going to contain the H plus ions, which is our hydrogen ion. But here they’re going to be bonded toe a non metal and ion that is not oxygen. Mhm. So binary assets are covalin compounds, usually beginning with hydrogen that contains no oxygen here. How do we form them? Well, we know that they possess the H plus ion and let’s think of a non metal they could be connected to in the anti on form, which means they have a negative charge. So let’s say we’re dealing with iodine. Iodine is a group of seven A. So it’s charge is minus one. So here we have plus one from the hydrogen minus one from the IOD I. If you’ve seen our videos on writing ionic compounds, we apply the same principles here. Remember, if the numbers in the charges are the same, they simply cancel out and you combine together your elements. So here this would be a church. I h. I would represent a typical binary acid. Alright, So here rules for naming these binary acids. Well, step one is the prefix they’re going to use. The prefix they use is hydro, and that basically represents the H plus ion. And then we’re gonna say step to use the base name of the non metal. Now, here’s the thing. Remember, the base name is usually the beginning part off the beginning. Name of the non metal that is being used and it’s unchanged. Except when we use sulfur or phosphorus. So it in their acid forms for sulfur, we actually use the entire name. We don’t use the base name. We use the entire name for sulfur and for phosphorus, we don’t just use its base name. We use a little bit. Mawr. The base name of phosphorus is Fosca, but in acid form, we actually use O. R as well. So, again, the non metal part of the acid that is not the H plus. We use it space name, except for sulfur and phosphorus. Use a little bit more than just their base names. Then finally, thio end the name of the binary acid. We use IQ acid for the end of the name, so we apply these principles and we’ll be able to name any type of binary

Binary Acids contain a hydrogen ion connected to a nonmetal that is not oxygen.

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example

Naming Acids Example 1

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So for this example question, it says right the formula for each of the following compounds, we have hydro I otik acid Hydro’s Olynyk acid and Hydrofluoric acid. All right, so we’re going to say that hydro, we know that represents the H Plus ion involved. So we have HPE Plus for all of these, Since they’re all binary acids, we know they all end with acid. What we look at is the base name. The base name tells us the nonmetal involved, so I owed means. We’re dealing with iodine. It’s in Group seven A. So what’s minus one? Sillen means we’re dealing with selenium. It’s in Group six A. So it’s two minus or minus two. And then floor means we’re dealing with flooring, which is a group 78 So it is minus one now for the first one for a remember when the numbers and the charges are the same, they simply cancel out and you combine your elements together. So hydro I otik acid is just h I. And then also for C plus one minus one. The numbers are the same, so you just combine them together. So Hydrofluoric acid is HF for being Hydro’s Olynyk acid. We have here different numbers in the charges. Remember, when the numbers are different, they crisscross. So one from here comes here to from here comes here. So that means Hydro’s Olynyk acid is H two S e. If you don’t quite remember these rules, make sure go back and take a look at our videos talking about writing ionic compounds. It’s the same kind of principles behind this. We look at the ions and charges. If the numbers are the same, they simply cancel out if the numbers are different than they crisscross. Using this helps us to determine each one of these three binary acids. Now that we’ve done this example, move onto the next video where we take a look at a practice problem.

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Problem

Give the systematic name for the following compound:H2S

A

sulfuric acid

B

hydrosulfuric acid

C

sulfic acid

D

hydrosulfic acid

E

hyposulfuric acid

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Problem

Give the systematic name for the following compound:HCN

A

cyanate acid

B

cyanous acid

C

hydrocyanous acid

D

cyanic acid

E

hydrocyanic acid

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concept

Naming Acids

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When it comes to Oxy acids, Oxy acids represent our second type of acid. Now we’re gonna say they represent covalin compounds because they’re acids. They contain hydrogen ion as well. But now they’re bonded toe Upali atomic ion containing oxygen. And it’s pretty clear why that is because the name is Oxi highlighting the fact that we have oxygen present now. So how could we form an oxy acid? Well, here we have our H plus ions, So H plus one. And let’s just think off a poly atomic ion that possesses oxygen here. We could have, you know, three minus and all three minus is our nitrate ion. And remember, when the numbers in the charges are the same, they just simply cancel out, and you combine together. You’re elements, So H n 03 What, Representing oxy acid. It is Covalin because it possesses only non metals. It has your hydrogen ion at the beginning of the compound structure, and all together we have our oxy acid. Now that we know how they’re formed and what they represent, click on to the next video and let’s go over the rules for naming them

Oxyacids contain a hydrogen ion connected to a polyatomic ion with oxygen.

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Naming Acids

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When it comes to naming Oxy acids, it’s first important to remember your Polly atomic ions. Now, if you don’t remember your Polly atomic ions or you haven’t watched my videos on them, I suggest you pause this video and go back and take a look at those videos first, then come back and we can tackle naming Oxy acids together. All right, so for those of you already, let’s go. We’re gonna say here rules for naming Oxy acids Rule one. If the Poly Atomic ion ends with eight, then change the ending when it’s in its acid form to IQ acid. Here we have a memory tool that will help us. So here we’re gonna say I ate and acid and it waas icky. Now don’t go biting into acids or eating them in any way. But just remember that eight goes with Vicky. Okay, so in its polytechnic ion form, it’s eight. But in its acid form we change the ending to tick acid. So here we have hpe plus with no three minus. Remember no three minus is your nitrate ion. When I combine them together to give me a Channel three that is our oxy acid form here, the eight ending changes to IQ acid. So nitrate becomes nitric acid. But remember, we also have Polly atomic ions that end with right. What do we do in those situations? Well, we’re gonna say if the Poly atomic ion ends with ICT, then in its acid form will change the ending to us acid. And again, we have a great memory tool. So I only bite into delicious into things that are delicious. So this will help us remember, if we have a poly atomic ion that ends with ICT in this acid form, it becomes o sauce ending Oh so acid. So here we have hpe plus with N O to minus N O to minus is our nitrite ion. When it combines with H plus, we get h l two, which is our oxy acid form. The ICT ending changes to us. That’s it. So nitrite becomes night trust acid. So again, unless you know you’re Polly Atomic ions, it gets pretty tricky in terms off naming the oxy acid for so first, make sure you’ve mastered the poly atomic ions and then we can start naming oxy acids. Now that we’ve seen the rules for this, let’s continue on with some questions and test what we’ve learned

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example

Naming Acids Example 2

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in this example Question. It says right, the formula for each of the following compounds. All right, so for a we have hte to C 03 All right, So think about what is making up this oxy acid. Well, we know that this is hpe Plus and we know here this CO three is altogether C 03 The two that comes here originated from the C 03 Because here, this is carbonate ion. Remember, the ending is eight. Remember? I ate and acid and it was icky. So that means that eight will become ic acid. So that means that this represents Harb bond Nick acid. So H two c 03 is carbonic acid. Next h three peel three. What makes it up? We know we have hpe plus here, and we know that P 03 here it Polly Atomic ion lies It was three minus. We also know, based on what we’ve seen in the Pali Atomic ion videos, that this would be called false fight. Fast fight ending ends with ICT. So remember, if it ends with ICT, we’re gonna say here that I bite into things that are delicious, right? So it becomes post acid. Also, remember that phosphorus we use more than just the base based name. We also include O r. And then it would be close acid. So this is false forest acid. Finally, we have H two s 04 which is composed of H plus and S 04 which is a poly atomic ion that is two minus. It’s one of our common types of tetra oxides. All right, so this is called Saul Fate. It ends with eight. So that means that our acid form would be ic acid. Just like phosphorous. Sulfur uses more than just the base name. So we actually use the whole name sulfur, and remember, eight becomes IC acid. So this is sulfuric acid as a name for our oxy acid. So again, you have to remember your Polly Atomic ion because they go hand in hand with learning and recognizing the oxy acid forms that exist. Now that we’ve done this example, let’s continue onward with more practice on naming oxy acids

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Problem

Write the formula for the following compound:Hypobromous acid

A

HBrO

B

H2BrO

C

HBrO2

D

HBrO3

E

H2BrO4

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Problem

Write the formula for the following compound:Cyanic acid

A

HCNO

B

HOCN

C

H2OCN

D

HO2CN

E

HCN

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Problem

Indicate and explain the sign of ΔSuniv for each process. a. 2 H2( g) + O2( g) ¡ 2 H2O(l ) at 298 K

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Additional resources for Naming Acids

PRACTICE PROBLEMS AND ACTIVITIES (13)

  • Name each acid. a. HI(aq)
  • Name each acid. b. HClO2(aq)
  • Name each acid. a. HCl(aq)
  • Write the formula for each acid. a. hydrofluoric acid
  • Refer to the nomenclature flowchart (Figure 3.11) to name each compound. d. HC2H3O2(aq)
  • Give the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (d) hypochlorous acid
  • Give the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (c) H3PO4
  • Give the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (b) HBr
  • Provide the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (f) CH3COOH.
  • Provide the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (e) HClO4
  • Provide the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids: (a) hydroiodic acid
  • Assume that you encounter the following sentences in your reading. What is the chemical formula for each subs…
  • Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systema…

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