PERIODIC TABLE Metals, Non-Metals, & Metalloids; Groups / Families & Periods
METALS • Found on the left side of the Periodic Table • Have less than 4 electrons in their outer orbit • Tend to give away electrons when forming bonds (+ ions)
METALS • Have a luster and are often gray in color. • Are malleable – Can be bent or pounded into shape without breaking • Are ductile – Can be formed into wire • Are good conductors of heat and electricity
NON-METALS • Found on the right side of the stair step line • Have more than 4 electrons in their outer orbit • Tend to take electrons when forming bonds (- ions)
NON-METALS • Have a dull finish • Are brittle and powdery • Are not ductile • Are poor conductors of heat and electricity
METALLOIDS • Elements that have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals • They are found along the stair step line on the Periodic Table
Examples of Metalloids Boron
Groups / Families • Groups or families are the vertical columns on the periodic table. • These elements have the same number of electrons in their outer orbits. • They also have many characteristics in common. The group IIa elements; beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, & barium. They are called the Alkali Earth Metals.
Groups / Families Which elements are these? upper left – magnesium lower right – calcium What do they have in common? The same number of electrons in their outer orbit.
Groups / Families Group VIIa is the Halogen family; fluorine, chlorine, bromine, & iodine. What do all of these elements have in common? Each has 7 electrons in its outer orbit. What characteristics do they have in common? All are very toxic and used as germ killers.
Alkali Metal Family • Each has only one electron in it’s outer orbit • Soft metals that rapidly corrode when exposed to air • React violently with water • Part of many common salts
Alkali Earth Metals • Have 2 electrons in their outer orbits. • Highly reactive and corrosive metals. • Magnesium is found in abundance in sea water. • Calcium is important for bones and teeth.
Selected Properties of the Group 7 Halogens Symbol and Name Atomic Number Electron arrangement State and color at room temperature, color of vapor when heated Melting point Boiling point F Fluorine 9 2.7 -220oC, 53K -188oC 85K Cl Chlorine 17 2.8.7 -101oC, 172K -34oC, 239K Br Bromine 35 22.214.171.124 -7oC, 266K 59oC, 332K I Iodine 53 126.96.36.199.7 114oC, 387K 185oC, 458K At Astatine 85 188.8.131.52.18.7 302oC 575K 337oC 610K Halogens dark red liquid, orange to bromine vapour pale yellow gas black solid, very dark vapour green gas very dark grey solid, purple vapour
Noble or Inert Gases • Have full outer orbits. • Are gases at room temperature. • They rarely form compounds. Inert!! • Helium is the second most abundant element in the cosmos.
Periods • Periods are the horizontal rows on the periodic table. • Elements in the same period have the same number of orbits containing electrons. • These elements do not have many other characteristics in common.