The Power Of 3 Week Waves
The Power Of 3 Week Waves

Title: Concurrent Training

Concurrent Training Periodization

  • Dr. Moran
  • EXS 558
  • Wednesday 11/2/05


Online Resource

  • Coaching Science Abstracts


Lecture Outline

  • Concurrent Training (Chapter 10)
  • Strength Training for the Endurance Athlete
  • Endurance Training for the Strength Athlete
  • Sequencing of Training
  • Effect on Endurance Training
  • Effect on Strength Training
  • Effect of Muscle Growth Muscle Fiber


Lecture Outline (cont)

  1. Periodization
  2. General Adaptation Syndrome
  3. Efficacy
  4. Models
  5. Linear
  6. Nonlinear
  7. Examples
  8. Power Athlete in Team Sport
  9. Power Athlete preparing for specific event
  10. Endurance Athlete


Review Question 1

  • What needs to be established before any training
    program can be developed and later evaluated?
  • GOALS these goals short be both short and long
    term and should factor in the training age of the
    athlete and reasonable expectations for that
    particular training program. These goals should
    include specific physiological events that can be
    quantitatively measured (i.e. strength gain).


Review Question 2

  • Although many studies have investigated the
    physiological adaptations as a result of
    different types of sport training, why should a
    coach keep a daily log of training events?
  • This may seem like a no-brainer but many coaches
    DO NOT keep a log of daily training event. Every
    athlete is different and will respond differently
    to training stimulus. It is important to keep
    this log to analyze after a training block
    whether successful or not (efficacy).


Review Question 3

  • What are the 5 principles of training?
  • Specificity Principle
  • Overload Principle
  • Individuality Principle
  • Principle of Diminishing Returns
  • Principle of Reversibility


Review Question 4

  • Explain 4 acute program variables as they relate
    to a resistance training program.
  • Choice of exercise
  • Number of Repetitions
  • Order of Exercise
  • Intensity of Exercise
  • Training Frequency
  • Rest Interval


Review Question 5

  • Explain the General Adaptation Syndrome as
    described as Dr. Seyle.
  • His adaptation model consists of three phases
    alarm reaction, adaptation, and exhaustion.
    During the alarm reaction this is an initial
    response with both shock and soreness followed by
    the period of adaptation and improvement of


Review Question 6

  • The individuality principle states that the same
    training stimulus may invoke a set of different
    physiological response in a set of athletes. Why
    do athletes respond differently?
  • Pretaining (TRAINING AGE)
  • Genetics
  • Gender


Review Question 7

  • Concentration of glycolytic enzymes may remain
    unchanged up to 2.5 months after a training
    program has been discontinued.


Review Question 8

  • Explain the difference between overreaching and
    overtraining? Is overreaching advantageous?


Review Question 9

  • What are some signs/symptoms of overtraining?


Concurrent TrainingIntroduction

  • Many sports rely on more than one energy system
  • Concurrent Training training multiple energy
    systems simultaneously
  • What are the physiological ramifications?
  • Is it smart to resistance train while trying to
    maximize endurance capabilities?
  • MacDougal et al. (1979) ? muscle mass parallel ?
    mitochondrial activity
  • It appears counter-productive
  • Abstract


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on VO2 Max

  • Hickson et al. (1980) examined the effect of
    resistance training on aerobic power and
    short-term endurance
  • Subjects recreation college aged male athletes
  • Training 5x a week resistance training
  • Results 38 ? in lower body strength w/o any
    change in aerobic capacity, in fact, time to
    exhaustion on cycle and treadmill ?
  • How is this possible from a physiologist
  • Improved glycolytic enzyme capacity
  • NM adaptations could provide better exercise
  • A more recent example


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on VO2 Max

  • Other studies on untrained subjects corroborate
    these findings and support that fact that
    resistance training does NOT impede ability to
    improve aerobic capacity
  • With trained athletes the results were similar
  • Studies ranged from 8-12 week in duration
  • No significant changes in endurance performance,
    lactate threshold, maximal aerobic capacity

These studies show that concurrent training does

not impede aerobic development


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on VO2 Max

UTuntrained PAphysically active


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Maximal Strength

  • Research Overview inconclusive
  • Group I combining endurance and resistance
    training may compromise the potential for
    strength gains
  • Group II combining endurance and resistance
    training does NOT compromise the potential for
    strength gains
  • Why the contrasting results?
  • Whether or NOT the subjects were previously
  • Differences in training age of study participants
  • Differences in Acute Program Variables


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Maximal Strength



Why the different reposnse?



Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Maximal Strength

  • Number of Training Sessions
  • Too many training sessions (both resistance
    endurance combined) may compromise strength gains
  • McCarthy et al. (2002) Findings indicate 3-days
    a week of concurrent performance of both strength
    and endurance training does not impair
    adaptations in strength, muscle hypertrophy, and
    neural activation induced by strength training
    alone. Results provide a physiological basis to
    support several performance studies that
    consistently indicate 3-days a week of concurrent
    training does not impair strength development
    over the short term. untrained subjects
  • Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent strength
    and endurance training. Medicine Science in
    Sports Exercise. 34(3)511-519, March 2002.


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Maximal Strength

  • Endurance Training Before Resistance
  • Leveritt Abernathy (1999)
  • 30 min endurance before resistance
  • Recreationally trained


Concurrent TrainingSequencing of Training

Sessionwhich session goes 1st?

  • Is it better to perform resistance training or
    endurance training first?
  • Only a limited of studies have investigated
  • Untrained sequence does not matter
  • Collins Snow (1993)
  • Trained no studies here? (possible ideas)


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Fiber Type Conversion

  • Bishop et al. (1999) endurance trained athletes
    performing a 12 week resistance training program
    in conjunction with their normal training did NOT
    experience any fiber type conversion or muscle
  • Was the intervention long enough?
  • Typically 6-8 wks after a resistance training
    program begins is enough time to witness muscle
  • Little is known if the program were continued
    over 3 months
  • Untrained Athletes concurrent training did
    significantly ? the muscle fiber area of type II
    BUT only after 12 weeks! A strength training
    group only saw increases in both type I and type
    II after 6 weeks.


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Fiber Hypertrophy

  • Kraemer et al. (1995)
  • Figure 10.4
  • Endurance training causes atrophy because it
    degrades myofibrillar protein to optimze oxygen
    uptake (Klausen et al., 1981)


Concurrent TrainingEffect of Concurrent Training

on Fiber Hypertrophy

  • Research Article 1 Changes in Muscle
    Hypertrophy in Women with Periodized Resistance
  • Kraemer et al. (2004). Medicine Science in
    Sports Exercise


Concurrent TrainingSUMMARY

Concurrent Training ability to maintain or

improve lean muscle mass and decrease fat

mass Good for people whose goal is to Reduce


Goal Improve Aerobic Capabilities

Goal Improve Maximal Strength


PeriodizationWhat is it? How started it?

  • Great reference book
  • Periodization Theory and Methodology of Training
  • Tudor Bompa, PhD
  • Most research within the field of resistance
    training NOT endurance trainingdo the results
    apply to all disciplines?
  • 1965, Russian scientist Matveyev adapted the
    Selye GAS model to be used within the sport


PeriodizationThe Basic Principle

  • High Volume, Low Intensity ? Low Volume, High




PeriodizationMatveyevs Training Phases (and



General volume high/intensity low Goal to

prepare the athlete for more Intense

sport-specific training later on

Specific volume reduced/intensity raised

Pre-Competition early season games Competitions

that are not primary focus

Main Competition the major games or championship


Maintenance team sports, intensity dropped to

same level of specific phase


PeriodizationMatveyevs Training Phases (and




  • Linear Model classical approach where intensity
    and volume remain consistent throughout the
    entire subphase (mesocycle)
  • Nonlinear (undulating) Model vaired approach
    where intensity and volume fluctuate throughout
    the subphase
  • Why might this be an effective approach?
  • For team sports, this approach might allow a
    lighter weight lifting program pre-game as a
    maintenance session
  • This approach puts an emphasis on competition
    DURING the training period and limits any
    potential overtraining that could occur
  • Research Article 2 Physiological Changes with
    Periodized Resistance Training in Women Tennis
  • Kraemer et al. (2003). Medicine Science in
    Sports Exercise



  • Few studies have examined the efficacy of a
    periodized training approach as opposed to a
  • More studies focus on the manipulation of APV
    during a periodized training approach
  • Significant strength gains have been shown from
    both training protocols, however, it appears that
    a periodized approach elicits greater strength
    changes and motor-performance improvements
  • This is DEPENDENT on the training age of
  • Novice resistance training participants may
    benefit just as much from a non-periodized
    approach until a certain level of strength is
  • Summary of Research Articles (Table 11.2 pg 136)


PeriodizationGeneric Examples Footbal Player


PeriodizationGeneric Examples Track Athlete



PeriodizationGeneric Examples (from text)

Distance Runner

125 miles

63 miles


Periodizationfrom Macrocycle ? Microcycle

  • Macrocycle large training period
  • Phase prep, competitive, transition
  • USATF proposes 4 phases
  • General Prep
  • Specific Prep
  • Pre-Comp
  • Main Comp
  • Mesocycle sub-phases (typically 3-6 weeks in
  • Microcycle typically 1-2 weeks in duration
  • Session combination of 4-6 units combined
  • Unit specific element of a workout session


PeriodizationHow to develop your own?

  • Key Questions
  • What is the major goal of training program?
  • Team sport
  • Individual sport
  • One peak (monocycle)
  • Two peaks
  • Three peaks (ex. cross country, indoor, outdoor)
  • What is the training age/background of athlete?
  • How to evaluate both volume and intensity?
  • A linear model or a nonlinear model?
  • Best to work backwards



  • Planning is not a novelty, and neither is it a
    Russian discovery as some enthusiasts proclaim.
    In simple forms, planning has existed since the
    ancient Olympic Games. Flavius Philostratus (AD
    170-245) wrote several manuals on the planning
    and training of the Greek Olympians, most of
    which have been destroyed. His surviving
    manuals, Handbook for the Athletics Coach and
    Gymnasticus, teach how to train for competitions
    including the importance for recovery. He also
    mentioned the type of knowledge a coach should
    have He should be a psychiatrist with
    considerable knowledge in anatomy and heritage
  • Boppa (1999)

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