How to Pronounce trapeze – American English
How to Pronounce trapeze – American English

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WEBSTER’S ENGLISH DICTIONARY Abbreviations abbr abbreviation, abbreviated adj adjective adv adverb Br Britain, British cap capital, capitalized conj conjunction e.g. for example (exempli gratis) f feminine fml formal hum humorous inf informal interj interjection m masculine n noun npl noun plural p participle pl plural poss possessive pp past participle prep preposition pron pronoun pt past tense vb verb How to Use this Book Alphabetical order Strict alphabetical order is followed. All compound words and hyphenated words are alphabetized as if they are one word. Abbreviations and acronyms are alphabetized as if the abbreviation is a whole word. Variations Variant spellings appear in bold type after the headword. Other terms that are related to the headword are given at the end of an entry in bold. Inflected forms of verbs and plural forms of nouns appear in bold following the headword. Parts of speech Parts of speech are indicated in italic by the abbreviations shown on here. Senses and definitions Within entries synonyms are separated by commas or semi-colons. Different senses within parts of speech are numbered. Parts of speech are separated by full points. Homographs Words of different origins but with the same spelling are given separate, numbered entries. Register Register is indicated by labels, such as formal, informal, old. See Abbreviations on the previous page. Pronunciation The aim of the pronunciation guide in this book Unlike some languages, English spelling does not always correspond to the actual pronunciation of the word. There are many very obvious examples of this, e.g. yacht is not pronounced as it is spelled. The aim of the pronunciation system in this book is to generate pronunciations which are easily readable using the conventions of English spelling, and which do not require an external guide or key. To achieve this, each entry in the dictionary includes a syllable-based spelling pronunciation which provides a transparent pronunciation for the word whether the word is easy to pronounce from the spelling, e,g, bit /bit/, or where the spelling is not a good guide to the word’s pronunciation as with yacht /yot/. Motivations for the approach Research has shown that spellings which adhere as much as possible to the actual spelling of a word provide the most accessible pronunciation guide for the reader (Fraser [1996]). More relevantly, when encountering a new word, the tendency for a reader—in the absence of a pronunciation guide—is to produce what is known as a spelling pronunciation (Montgomery [2005]). This is a pronunciation which follows the most basic norms of the sound/spelling relationships of English. Consider how people say the name Sean if they are unaware of the correct pronunciation. Without fail, the reader will produce /seen/ if they do not know it should be /shawn/. Rather obviously, if a pronunciation is transparent (in other words, if the word’s spelling is a direct reflection of the pronunciation) the word is easier to pronounce without aid than a word that is not. The obvious direction is to tap into this natural want to produce a spelling pronunciation. The problem is that many English words are not spelling pronunciations. These words require some kind of external clarification if we are to find the word’s correct pronunciation. In other words we cannot use the spelling on its own as a guide to the word’s pronunciation. So despite the obvious benefits of using conventional spelling as a pronunciation guide, all words do not lend themselves to this. Our solution Speech fundamentally hinges on syllables. English (and most other languages) use syllables in speech to break down words into units which can be pulsed out. Our words often have more than one syllable, with one syllable in each word more prominent than others. This is known as the stressed syllable. To aid our readers in the pronunciation of words, we have utilized the norms of the English sound/spelling system at a syllabic level and combined this with the tendency for a speaker to naturally want to produce the most simple pronunciation of any given string of letters (a spelling pronunciation). In basic terms, we have broken down each word which does not have a transparent pronunciation into syllables which do have transparent pronunciations. For example: earache /ee-rake/, eccentricity /ek-sen-tri-si-tee/. In practice, this means we have produced for each word a series of syllable blocks—divided by hyphens—which when read, reveal the pronunciation of the word. To further aid in this, the main stress is marked in bold. The result is a clear and intuitive spelling pronunciation which is based on the sound/spelling norms of the English language at a syllabic level, and which is immediately intuitive because it adheres as closely as possible to the way speech itself is streamed from us—in neat syllables. Consider the following: Thi re-zult is a clear and in-too-wi-tiv spe-ling pro-nun-see-ay-shun which is base-ste on thi sound spe-ling normz ov thi ing-glish lang-gwidge at a si-la-bic le-vel and which iz i-mee-dee-it-lee in-too-wi-tiv. As can be noted from this passage, some words are changed, and some are not. Where the word’s pronunciation is transparent and cannot be made clearer, the spelling is used as the pronunciation guide—with any relevant syllabification hyphens inserted. However, due to the nature of English orthography, many words require the syllables to be regenerated as spelling pronunciations to provide a clear pronunciation. The entire system functions on the basis of spelling/pronunciation norms which it utilizes in an efficient and intuitive manner. The system is elegant in its simplicity, with the benefit that pronunciations are generated using prior linguistic knowledge, without the need for reference tables or the necessity of dealing with phonemes or symbols. Variation There can ultimately be no completely systematic approach in a system such as this. As such, each word is individually transcribed into the syllable-based spelling pronunciation as required. The result of this is unprecedented accuracy of pronunciation, with no new skills required from the reader since the rules of English spelling/pronunciation automatically drive the reader to the pronunciation. Conclusion Ultimately, English spelling is inconsistent. English pronunciations from the spellings are even more varied. Moreover, where a simple, accessible system is required for pronunciations, and where the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is not an option (as here, where children cannot be assumed to be familiar with a system such as the IPA), a system that employs syllable-based spelling pronunciations is the most intuitive and clear method of generating pronunciations. It is simple; it draws on the reader’s knowledge of sound spelling norms at a very basic level; and it ensures pronunciations are accessible even to those unfamiliar with any kind of pronunciation systems. And all without the need for a key… Dr Scott Montgomery Stow, October 13, 2005 References Fraser, H. (1996) ‘Guy-dance with pro-nun-see-yay-shun’. English Today 47, Vol.12, No.3 (July 1996). Montgomery, S. (2005) ‘Lax Vowels, Orthography and /´/: the need for orthographic primacy’. Linguistische Berichte, 201: 41-64. A A, a /ay/ n 1 the first letter of the English alphabet. 2 in music, the sixth note of the scale of C major. 3 a human blood type (blood type A). 4 the best grade in a school paper (he got an A for Algebra). a /a/ indefinite article (an before a vowel) 1 any, some, one (have a cookie). 2 one single thing (there’s not a store for miles). 3 per, for each (take this twice a day). aardvark /ard-vark/ n an African mammal with a long snout that feeds on ants. abacus /a-ba-kus, a-ba-kus/ n a counting frame with beads. abalone /a-ba-lo-nee, a-ba-lo-nee/ n an edible sea snail with a shell that is shaped like an ear. abandon /a-ban-don/ vb 1 to give up (abandonthe attempt). 2 to depart from forever, desert (abandon his wife and children). n freedom from care (dance with abandon). abandoned /a-ban-dond/ adj 1 deserted (an abandoned house). 2 immoral, shameless (abandoned young women). abate /a-bate/ vb to lessen (storms abating). n abatement /a-bate-ment/. abbess /a-bess/ n the chief nun in a convent. abbey /a-bee/ n 1 a monastery or convent. 2 a church, once part of a monastery or convent. abbot /a-bot/ n the chief monk in a monastery. abbreviate /a-bree-vee-ate/ vb to shorten (abbreviate a word). n abbreviation /a-bree-vee-ay-shon/. abdicate /ab-di-kate/ vb to give up high office, especially a throne. n abdication /ab-di-kay-shon/. abdomen /ab-do-men/ n the part of the body between your chest and your thighs. adj abdominal /ab-dom-in-al/. abduct /ab-duct/ vb to kidnap. n abduction /ab-duct-shun/. n abductor /ab- duct -or/. abhor /ab-hor/ vb to loathe. n abhorrence /ab-hor-rence/. abhorrent /ab-hor-rent/ adj loathsome. abide /a-bide/ vb to put up with (she cannot abide untidiness). abide by to obey, to remain true to (abide by the rules). abiding /a-bide-ing/ adj lasting (an abiding love). ability /a-bil-it-ee/ n 1 skill or power to do a thing (the ability to do the job). 2 cleverness (pupils of ability). ablaze /a-blaze/ adj and adv on fire, in flames. able /ay-bl/ adj 1 having skill or power to do a thing. 2 clever. adv ably. able-bodied /ay-bl-bod-eed/ adj someone who is able to walk and is physically healthy. abnormal /ab-nor-mal/ adj different from the usual (abnormal levels of lead). adv abnormally /ab-nor-mal-lee/. abnormality /ab-nor-mal-it-ee/ n an unusual quality. aboard /a-board/ adv and prep on board, on a ship, train, airplane, etc. abode /a-bode/ n (fml or hum) house, home (our humble abode). abolish /a-bol-ish/ vb to put an end to, to do away with (abolish slavery). n abolition /a-bol-ish-en/, abolitionist /a-bo-lish-en-ist/. abominable /a-bom-na-bl/ adj hateful (her abominable behavior shocked everyone). aboriginal /a-bor-ridge-nal, a-bor-ri-ji-nal/ adj 1 describing a feature that is native to a country. 2 (cap) describing the native peoples of Australia. n (cap) a descendant of the people who inhabited Australia before the arrival of the Europeans. aborigine /a-bor-ridge-nee, a-bor-ri-ji-nee/ n 1 one of the original inhabitants of a country, who has been there since the earliest times. 2 (cap) another name for an Australian Aboriginal. abort /a-bort/ v to stop something, especially in the early stages (they had to abort the space shuttle take-off because of a problem with the fuel). abortive /a-bor-tive/ adj unsuccessful because done too soon (an abortive attempt). abound /a-bound/ vb to be plentiful (large houses abound there). about /a-bout/ adv and prep 1 concerning (a letter about money). 2 around (dash about the house). 3 near to (somewhere about here). 4 nearly (costing about $5). 5 on the point of (just about to go). above /a-buv/ adv and prep 1 over (pictures above the fireplace/an apartment above the store). 2 higher (than) (above average). aboveboard /a-buv-board/ adj honest, fair (the deal was honest and aboveboard). abrasion /a-bray-zhen/ n 1 the act of rubbing away at something (abrasion causing scratches). 2 an area of skin that has been scraped (her skin was covered in cuts and abrasions after the accident). abrasive /a-bray-ziv/ adj 1 causing abrasion (use abrasive to remove the paint). 2 harsh or irritating (abrasive personality). n something that causes abrasion. abreast /a-brest/ adv side by side (competitors running abreast). abreast of the times up-to-date. abridge /a-bridge/ vb to make shorter (abridge the story). n abridg(e)ment /a-bridge-ment/. abroad /a-brawd/ adv 1 out of your own country (vacations abroad). 2 far and wide (spread the news abroad). abrupt /a-brupt/ adj 1 sudden, hasty (an abrupt departure). 2 discourteous (an abrupt reply). adv abruptly /a-brupt-ly/. n abruptness /a-brupt-ness/. abscess /ab-sess/ n a boil, a gathering of pus in some part of the body. absence see absent. absent /ab-sent/ adj not present (absent from school/absent friends). n absence /ab-sence/. absentee /ab-sen-tee/ n someone who is not present. absent-minded /ab-sent-mind-ded/ adj not thinking of what you are doing (her father was very absent-minded). absolute /ab-so-lute, ab-so-lute/ adj 1 complete (absolute perfection). 2 free from controls or conditions (absolute power). adv absolutely /ab-so-lute-ly, ab-so-lute-ly/. absolution see absolve. absolve /ab-solve/ vb to set free, as from guilt or punishment (absolve from blame). n absolution /ab-so-loo-shen/. absorb /ab-sorb/ vb 1 to soak up (a material that absorbs liquid). 2 to take up all the attention of. absorbed /ab-sorbd/ adj giving the whole mind to (people absorbed in their work). absorbent /ab-sor-bent/ adj drinking in. absorption /ab-sorp-shen/ n 1 act of absorbing. 2 full attention. abstain /ab-stain/ vb 1 to keep yourself from, to hold back from (abstain from smoking). 2 not to vote (three voted against and two abstained). n abstainer /ab-stainer/. n abstention /ab-sten-shen/. abstract /ab-stract/ n a summary (an abstract of the lecture). adj /ab-stract, ab-stract/ 1 existing in the mind only. 2 portraying ideas rather than realistic images (an abstract painting). absurd /ab-surd/ adj foolish. n absurdity /ab-sur-di-tee/. abundance /a-bun-dance/ n more than enough, plenty (an abundance of apples this year). adj abundant /a-bun-dant/. adv abundantly /a-bun-dant- lee/. abuse /a-byooz/ vb 1 to make wrong use of (abuse power). 2 to ill-treat, to maltreat, especially physically or sexually (abuse their children). 3 to use insulting language (a drunk abusing the barman). n /a-byoos/. n abuser /a- byoo-zer/. abusive /a-byoo-sive/ adj 1 ill-treating, cruel (abusive treatment). 2 insulting (abusive language). adv abusively /a-byoo-siv-lee/. abysmal /a-biz-mal/ adj very bad (an abysmal performance). abyss /a-biss/ n a very deep pit or ravine. academic /a-ca-de-mic/ adj 1 of or concerning education, especially in a college or university (an academic career). 2 not practical or useful; theoretical (of academic interest). n teacher in a college or university. academy /a-ca-de-mee/ n 1 a high school 2 a school for special studies (a military academy). 3 a society for advancing arts and sciences (the Royal Academy). accelerate /ac-sel-le-rate/ vb to increase speed. n acceleration /ac-sel-le-ray- shen/. accelerator /ac-sel-le-ray-tor/ n a device that controls the speed of an automobile. accent /ac-sent/ n 1 a special emphasis given to part of a word (the accent is on the first syllable). 2 the mark that indicates such emphasis. 3 a way of speaking peculiar to certain persons or groups (a New York accent). vb /ac- sent/ to emphasize a certain part of a word. accentuate /ac-sen-shoo-ate/ vb to emphasize (a dress accentuating the blue of her eyes). accept /ak-sept/ vb 1 to receive something offered (accept the gift with thanks/accept his apology). 2 to regard as true, reasonable, satisfactory, etc (accept his excuse/accept their criticism). n acceptance /ak-sep-tance/. acceptable /ak-sep-ta-bl/ adj 1 pleasant to receive (a very acceptable gift). 2 satisfactory, good enough (acceptable work). 3 allowable, tolerable (acceptable levels of radiation). access /ak-sess/ n a way or means of approach. vb to find on a computer file (access secret data illegally). accessible /ak-sess-i-bl/ adj 1 easily approached (an accessible manager). 2 easily reached (villages that are scarcely accessible). 3 easily obtained or understood (accessible information). n accessibility. accessory /ak-sess-or-ee/ n 1 an assistant, especially in crime. 2 an additional part or tool (car accessories). 3 an additional item worn with clothing (accessories such as purses). accident /ak-sid-ent/ n 1 an unexpected happening (we met by accident). 2 an unexpected event that causes damage or injury (a road accident). adj accidental. acclaim/a-claim/ vb to greet with applause. Also n. acclamation /ak-la-may-shun/ n a shout of joy or approval. acclimatize /a-clime-a-tize/ vb, also acclimatise (Br) to accustom to a new climate or situation. n acclimatization /a-clime-a-tize-ay-shun/, also acclimatisation (Br). accolade /a-ko-lade/ n 1 the touching on the shoulder with a sword in the ceremony of making someone a knight. 2 praise or approval (receive accolades for his bravery). accommodate /a-com-o-date/ vb 1 to provide lodgings for (accommodate the travelers in the hotel). 2 to have space for (a garage accommodating three cars). 3 to supply with (accommodate them with a loan). 4 to make suitable, to adapt (accommodate his way of life to his salary). accommodating /a-com-o-date-ing/ adj obliging (an accommodating friend). accommodation /a-com-o-day-shun/ n 1 lodgings (cheap accommodation for student travelers). 2 adaptation. accompaniment /a-com-pan-ee-ment/ n the music played with a singer or player (musical accompaniment for the voice). accompanist /a-com-pan-ist/ n someone who plays the accompaniment for a singer or player (the accompanist played piano). accompany /a-com-pan-ee/ vb 1 to go with (accompany her to the concert). 2 to join a singer or player by playing a musical instrument. accomplice /a-com-pliss/ n a helper, especially in crime (the burglar’s accomplice). accomplish /a-com-plish/ vb to perform successfully, to finish (accomplish the task). accomplished /a-com-plisht/ adj 1 finished (the accomplished task). 2 skilled (an accomplished pianist). accomplishment /a-com-plish-ment/ n 1 something done successfully. 2 completion. accord /a-cord/ vb 1 to agree (his account of the accident accords with hers). 2 to give (accord them a warm welcome). n agreement. of your own accord by your own wish. accordance /a-cor-dans/ n agreement. accordingly /a-cor-ding-lee/ adv therefore. according to /a-cor-ding to/ prep 1 in keeping with (act according to the rules). 2 as stated by (according to the teacher). accordion /a-cor-dee-on/ n a portable musical instrument played by keys and worked by bellows. n accordionist /a-cor-dee-on-ist/. accost /a-cost/ vb to speak to first, to address. account /a-count/ vb (fml) to consider, to reckon (account him an honest man). n 1 a statement of money received and paid, a bill. 2 a report, description (an account of the accident). account for give an explanation of (account for his absence). of no account of no importance. on account of because of. accountable adj /a-count-a-bl/ responsible (not accountable for his brother’s crime). accountancy /a-count-an-see/ n the work of an accountant (he studied accountancy). accountant /a-count-ant/ n someone who keeps or examines money accounts. accumulate /a-kyoom-yoo-late/ vb 1 to increase, to heap up (garbage accumulated). 2 to collect (accumulate wealth). accumulation /a-kyoom-yoo-lay-shun/ n growth, a large collection. accuracy /ak-yoo-rass-ee/ n exactness, precision (to aim with accuracy). accurate /ak-yoo-rit/ adj 1 correct, exact (an accurate answer). 2 correct, careful (an accurate worker). adv accurately. accursed /a-curst/ adj 1 under a curse, doomed (he seemed to be an accursed man). 2 hateful. accusation /a-kyoo-zay-shun/ n a charge brought against anyone (accusation of theft). accuse /a-kyooz/ vb to charge with wrongdoing (accuse them of stealing cars). n accuser /a-kyooz-er/. accused /a-kyoozd/ n someone charged with wrongdoing (the accused was found guilty). accustom /a-cuss-tom/ vb to make well known by use (accustom yourself to a different climate). accustomed /a-cuss-tomd/ adj 1 usual (his accustomed evening walk). 2 used (to), familiar with (not accustomed to being treated rudely). ace /ace/ n 1 the value “one” at cards, dice, or dominoes (the ace of hearts). 2 someone good at sports (an ace on the running track). within an ace of on the very point of. acetic /a-set-ic/ adj sour, of vinegar. acetylene /a-set-ill-een/ n a gas used for giving light and heat, and commonly used with oxygen for welding or cutting metal. ache /ake/ vb to be in or to give prolonged pain. n a prolonged or throbbing pain. achieve /a-cheev/ vb 1 to succeed in doing (achieve what we set out to do). 2 to gain (achieve success). achievement /a-cheev-ment/ n 1 something done successfully (the achievement of his aims). 2 a feat (a remarkable achievement). acid /a-sid/ n a sour or corrosive substance (a solution of dilute sulfuric acid). adj sour; sharp to the taste; bitter (an acid personality). acid rain /a-sid rane/ n rain that has been polluted by acid from factory waste, car exhausts, etc and which is harmful to the environment. acid test /a-sid test/ n a test that indicates the worth or value of something (the acid test of his invention will be if it works). acidity /a-sid-it-ee/ n sourness. acknowledge /ak-naw-ledge/ vb 1 to admit as true (acknowledge that he was wrong/acknowledge defeat). 2 to admit the receipt of (acknowledge the letter). n acknowledg(e)ment /ak-naw-ledge-ment/. acne /ak-nay/ n a skin condition that causes pimples. acorn /ay-corn/ n the fruit or seed of the oak tree. acoustic /a-coos-tik/ adj 1 having to do with hearing and sound (the acoustic problems of the old hall). 2 (of a musical instrument) making its natural sound, not electric (an acoustic guitar). acoustics /a-coos-tiks/ npl the science of sound. acquaint /a-kwaint/ vb 1 to make familiar with (acquaint yourself with the new system). 2 to inform (acquaint them with the facts). acquaintance /a-kwain-tanse/ n 1 a person you know (friends and acquaintances). 2 knowledge (a slight acquaintance with the plays of Tennessee Williams). acquire /a-kwire/ vb to gain, to obtain. acquit /a-kwit/ vb 1 to declare innocent. 2 to conduct yourself (acquit yourself well). acquittal /a-kwi-tal/ n a setting free. acre /ay-kr/ n in the imperial system, a measure of land (= 4840 square yards or 4046.9 square meters). acrobat /a-cro-bat/ n a high-wire or trapeze artiste. adj acrobatic. npl acrobatics the skills of an acrobat. acronym /a-cro-nym/ n an abbreviation, made from the initial letters, or from combinations of letters from a word, which itself can be pronounced as a word (NATO is an acronym of North Atlantic Treaty Organization). act /act/ vb 1 to do (act quickly). 2 to conduct yourself (act wisely). 3 to perform on the stage, in movies, or on television. 4 to produce an effect (drugs acting quickly). n 1 a deed (a kind act). 2 a law. 3 a part of a play. action /ac-shon/ n 1 something done (take swift action). 2 a movement (good wrist action). 3 the producing of an effect. 4 the events in a narrative or drama. 5 a battle. active /ac-tiv/ adj 1 energetic (active children). 2 taking part, involved (an active member of the club). 3 being in action, working, operative (an active volcano). activity /ac-ti-vi-tee/ n 1 energy. 2 occupation or pastime (spare-time activities). actor /ac-tor/ n a man who performs in a play, or movie or on television. actress /ac-tress/ n a woman who performs in a play or movie or on television. actual /ac-chul/ adj 1 real, not imaginary (actual children, not characters in a television play). 2 true (the actual cost of the repairs). actuality /ac-chu-wa-li-tee/ n reality. actually /ac-cha-lee/ adv really, as a matter of fact. acupuncture /a-kyoo-punk-cher/ n a treatment used in alternative medicine in which fine needles are inserted into the skin at certain points along energy paths known as meridians. acute /a-kyoot/ adj 1 coming to a sharp point. 2 sharp-witted. 3 (of emotions or diseases) intense but short-lasting. adv acutely. acute angle /a-kyoot ang-gl/ n an angle less than 90º. AD /ay-dee/ abbr for Anno Domini, a Latin phrase meaning “in the year of our Lord”, which is used to describe the years following the birth of Jesus. ad /ad/ n short for advertisement. adage /a-didge/ n a proverb, an old wise saying. adamant /a-da-mant/ adj determined, firm (adamant that they were right). adapt /a-dapt/vb 1 to make suitable, to fit to a different use (adapt the evening dress for day wear). 2 to change, adjust (adapt to new surroundings). adaptable /a-dap-ta-bl/ adj easily fitted to new uses or conditions. n adaptability /a-dap-ta-bi-li-tee/. adaptation /a-dap-tay-shun/ n the action or result of adapting. adapter /a-dap-ter/ n a device for connecting electrical plugs with a socket. add /add/ vb 1 to join one thing to another. 2 to increase (add to their misery). 3 to say further (add a word of thanks). adder /a-der/ n a small poisonous snake, a viper. addict /a-dict/ n a person who is dependent on and so unable to give up a habit, especially a harmful one such as drug-taking (a drug addict). addicted /a-dic-ted/ adj dependent on, unable to give up (addicted to alcohol/an addicted drug-user). n addiction /a-dic-shen/. addition /a-di-shen/ n 1 act of adding. 2 something added (an addition to the family). adj additional /a-di-she-nel/. additive /a-di-tiv/ n a substance added to another, especially to add flavor or color (food additives). address /a-dress/ vb 1 to speak to (address the crowds). 2 to direct a letter. 3 to direct your attention or energy to (address the task). n /a-dress, a-dress/ 1 the place where a person lives or works. 2 the directions on a letter or envelope. 3 a formal talk (the head teacher’s address on speech day). adenoids /a-de-noids/ npl glands at the back of the nose that can hinder breathing if swollen. adept /a-dept/ adj very skillful (adept at tennis). n someone who is skilled. adequate /a-de-kwit/ adj 1 enough (adequate supplies). 2 satisfactory (adequate for the job). adv adequately. n adequacy. adhere /ad-heer/ vb 1 to stick (to). 2 to remain loyal to (adhere to your principles). n adherence /ad-hee-rents/. adhesive /ad-hee-ziv/ adj sticky. n a sticky substance, glue. adieu /a-dyoo/ interj the French word for farewell, goodbye. n (pl adieus or adieux /a-dyooz/) a farewell. adios /a-dee-oss/ interj the Spanish word for goodbye. adjacent /a-jay-sent/ adj lying near (to) (the fire spread to adjacent buildings). adjective /a-jec-tiv/ n a word that describes a noun. adj adjectival /a-jec-tie- val/. adv adjectivally. adjourn /a-jurn/ vb 1 to put off to another time (adjourn the meeting). 2 to go to another place (adjourn to the next room). n adjournment /a-jurn- ment/. adjust /a-just/ vb 1 to set right. 2 to put in order. adj adjustable /a-jus-ta-bl/. n adjuster /a-jus-ter/, adjustment /a-just-ment/. administer /ad-mi-ni-ster/ vb 1 to manage, to govern (administer the firm’s finances). 2 to carry out (administer the law). 3 (fml) to give (administer medicine). administration /ad-mi-ni-stray-shun/ n 1 the management of a business or a government. 2 people involved in this. adj administrative /ad-mi-ni-stra-tiv/. administrator /ad-mi-ni-stray-tor/ n a person who works in administration (hospital administrators). admirable /ad-mi-ra-bl/ adj deserving admiration or praise (admirable work). adv admirably /ad-mi-ra-blee/. admiral /ad-mi-ral/ n the highest rank of naval officer. admiration /ad-mi-ray-shun/ n a feeling of pleased respect (look at the painting with admiration). admire /ad-mire/ vb to think very highly of (admire her work). n admirer /ad-mire-rer/. admission /ad-mi-shen/ n 1 permission to enter (women being refused admission). 2 the amount payable for entry (admission $4). 3 a confession (an admission of guilt). admit /ad-mit/ vb 1 to allow to enter (the ticket admits two people). 2 to accept as true or just (admit that they are right). 3 to confess (admit his crime). admittance /ad-mi-tanse/ n (fml) right or permission to enter (fail to gain admittance). admittedly /ad-mi-ted-lee/ adv it cannot be denied. admonish /ad-mo-nish/ vb to give a warning or scolding to. n admonition /ad-mo-ni-shun/. adj admonitory /ad-mon-ni-to-ree/. ado /a-doo/ n fuss, trouble (let us get on our way without further ado). adobe /a-doe-bee/ n 1 a building material made of sun-dried earth and straw. 2 a building made of this material. adolescent /a-doe-less-sent/ adj growing up from youth to adulthood. n a person of either sex when adolescent. n adolescence /a-doe-less-sens/. adopt /a-dopt/ vb 1 to take as your own (adopt a child). 2 to take over and use (adopt foreign customs). 3 to choose formally (adopt a candidate). n adoption /a-dop-shun/. adorable /a-doe-ra-bl/ adj lovable. adore /a-dore/ vb 1 to worship (adore God). 2 to love or like very much (adore their mother/adore spicy food). n adoration /a-do-ray-shun/. adorn vb /a-dorn/ to decorate, to make beautiful (adorn the tree with Christmas lights). adj adorned. adornment /a-dorn-ment/ n an ornament. adrift /a-drift/ adj and adv floating without control. adrenaline /a-dre-na-lin/, adrenalin n a chemical produced by your body when you are scared or excited. adulation /a-je-lay-shun/ n extreme praise, flattery. adult /a-dult, a-dult/ adj grown-up (an adult animal). n a grown-up person. adulterate /a-dul-te-rayt/ vb to lower in value by mixing with something of less worth (e.g. to mix wine with water, gold with tin, etc). n adulteration /a- dul-te-ray-shun/. advance /ad-vanse/ vb 1 to put forward (advance a theory). 2 to go forward (armies advancing). 3 to help promote (advance the cause of freedom). 4 to lend (the bank advanced him $5000). n 1 a forward movement (the advance of the army). 2 progress (little advance in the discussions). 3 a loan (of money), especially a payment made before the normal time (an advance on his paycheck). 4 increase (any advance on $500 for this picture?). in advance in front; before. advanced /ad-vanst/ adj 1 far on (in life, time, etc) (of advanced years/an illness at an advanced stage). 2 at a high level, not elementary (advanced studies). 3 modern and new and sometimes not yet generally accepted (advanced ideas). advantage /ad-van-tidge/ n 1 a better position or something that puts someone in a better position (he has the advantage of being older). 2 gain, profit, benefit (little advantage in having a car if you can’t afford to run it). advantageous /ad-van-tey-jess/ adj profitable; helpful. adv advantageously /ad-van-tey-jess-lee/. advent /ad-vent/ n a coming, an arrival (the advent of train travel). Advent /ad-vent/ n in the Christian Church, the period from the fourth Sunday before Christmas to Christmas Day. adventure /ad-ven-cher/ n an exciting or dangerous deed or undertaking. adventurer /ad-ven-cher-rer/ (m/f), adventuress /ad-ven-che-ress/ (f) n 1 someone who seeks adventures. 2 someone who lives by his or her wits. adventurous /ad-ven-che-russ/ adj 1 daring, eager for adventure (adventurous children). 2 dangerous, involving risk (an adventurous journey). adverb /ad-verb/ n a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. adj adverbial /ad-ver-bee-al/. adversary /ad-ver-se-ree/ n an enemy. adverse /ad-verse, ad-verse/ adj acting against, unfavorable (adverse weather conditions/adverse criticism). adv adversely /ad-verse-lee/. adversity /ad-ver-si-tee/ n misfortune. advertise /ad-ver-tize/ vb to make known to the public. n advertiser /ad-ver- tie-zer/. advertisement /ad-ver-tize-ment/ n an announcement to the public, often for the purpose of selling something. advice /ad-vice/ n 1 a helpful opinion offered to another (seek expert financial advice). 2 a formal letter, etc, giving information (a sales advice). advisable /ad-vie-za-bl/ adj wise; correct in the circumstances. n advisability /ad-vie-za-bi-li-tee/. advise /ad-vize/ vb 1 to give advice (advise them to leave). 2 to inform (advise us of the cost). adviser /ad-vie-zer/ n someone who gives advice. advisory /ad-vie-zo-ree/ adj for the purpose of giving advice. advocate /ad-vo-cat/ n 1 someone who speaks for another. 2 a lawyer who pleads a cause in court. vb to recommend, to speak in favor of (advocate a change of climate for his health). aerial /ae-ree-al/ adj of or from the air (aerial photography). n (Br) a radio or television antenna.aerie /air-ee/ /eer-ee/ n, also eyrie (Br) 1 the nest of an eagle or other bird of prey. 2 any high isolated place. aerobatics /ae-ro-ba-tics/ npl difficult exercises performed in the air by an aircraft. aerobics /ae-ro-bics/ n a type of physical exercise that strengthens the heart and lungs by temporarily increasing the heart rate (she says she became very fit after doing aerobics for almost a year). adj aerobic /ae-ro-bic/. aerodynamic /ae-ro-die-na-mic/ adj streamlined for smooth movement through the air. aeronautics /ae-ro-naw-tics/ n the science of the operation and flight of aircraft. aerosol /ae-ro-sol/ n 1 a liquid under pressure in a container, which is released in a fine spray (deodorants in the form of aerosols). 2 the container for this (aerosols of perfume). affable /a-fa-bl/ adj pleasant, polite, easy to talk with (she has a very affable manager at her work). n affability /a-fa-bi-li-tee/. adv affably. affair /a-fair/ n 1 business (affairs of state). 2 a matter, a concern (no affair of yours). 3 happenings or events connected with a particular person or thing (the Watergate affair). 4 a romantic or sexual relationship. affect /a-fect/ vb 1 to act upon (a disease affecting his eyes). 2 to move the feelings (deeply affected by his death). 3 to pretend (affect grief). affected /a-fec-ted/ adj full of affectation (an affected young woman). affectation /a-fec-tay-shun/ n manner or behavior that is not natural; pretense (her helplessness is just an affectation). affection /a-fec-shun/ n fondness, love. affectionate /a-fec-shi-nit/ adj loving. adv affectionately /a-fec-shi-nit-lee/. affiliate /a-fi-lee-ay-ted/ v to joined or be connected with something (affiliate yourself with that club). n affiliation /a-fi-lee-ay-shun/. affinity /a-fi-ni-tee/ n 1 relationship (languages having an affinity with each other). 2 attraction (an affinity between them). affirm /a-firm/ vb to state with certainty. affirmation /a-fir-may-shun/ n 1 a statement. 2 a solemn statement of the truth. affirmative /a-fir-ma-tiv/ adj answering “yes”. n an answer meaning “yes”. answer in the affirmative to say “yes”. afflict /a-flict/ vb to cause pain, distress, etc, to (she is afflicted with poor health/the economic problems afflicting the country). n affliction /a-flic- shun/. affluence /a-floo-ents/ n wealth. affluent /a-floo-ent/ adj wealthy. afford /a-ford/ vb 1 to be able to pay for (they were unable to afford a vacation). 2 to be able to do, spend, etc, something without trouble, loss, etc (unable to afford the time). 3 (fml) to give (the occasion afforded him much pleasure). afloat /a-float/ adj and adv floating. aforesaid /a-fore-said/ adj already mentioned. afraid /a-frade/ adj frightened. afresh /a-fresh/ adv again (begin afresh). African American /a-fri-can a-me-ri-can/ n a United States citizen who has African ancestors. adj describing African Americans, or their culture, history, etc. aft /aft/ adj and adv at or near the stern of a ship. after /af-ter/ adv and prep 1 later in time (than) (after the meal). 2 behind (come after them). aftermath /af-ter-math/ n the period of time, or consequences, following an unpleasant or unfortunate event (the aftermath of the war). afternoon /af-ter-noon/ n the time from noon to evening. afterthought /af-ter-thot/ n 1 a fresh thought after an act or speech. 2 something added or done later, not part of an original plan (a garage added as an afterthought). afterward /af-ter-ward/ adv later. again /a-gen/ adv once more. against /a-genst/ prep 1 in opposition to (people against the new law). 2 supported by (lean against the wall). agate /a-get/ n a very hard precious stone. age /ayj/ n 1 the length of time a person or thing has lived or existed. 2 (inf) a long time (wait ages for a bus). 3 the state of being old (improve with age). 4 a particular period in history (the Stone Age). vb 1 to become old. 2 to make old (worry has aged her). aged /ay-jed/ adj 1 at the age of (boys aged ten). 2 old (my aged grandfather). ageless /ayj-less/ adj never becoming old. agency /ay-jen-see/ n the office or business of an agent. agenda /a-jen-da/ n a list of matters to be discussed at a meeting. agent /ay-jent/ n 1 someone or something that acts (cleaning agents that harm the skin). 2 a person who acts on behalf of someone else. aggravate /a-gra-vate/ vb 1 to make worse (aggravate the situation by losing his temper). 2 (inf) to make angry (children aggravating their mother). adj aggravating. n aggravation. aggression /a-gre-shun/ n 1 an attack. 2 hostile feelings. aggressive /a-gre-siv/ adj 1 always ready to attack, quarrelsome. 2 forceful, determined (an aggressive sales campaign). adv aggressively /a-gre-siv-lee/. aggressor /a-gre-sor/ n the first to attack. agile /a-jile/ adj quick of movement, nimble. n agility /a-ji-li-tee/. agitate /a-ji-tate/ vb 1 to excite, to make anxious (delay agitates her). 2 to try to stir up public feeling (agitate for prison reform). 3 (fml) to shake (agitate the bottle). n agitation /a-ji-tay-shun/. agitator /a-ji-tay-tor/ n someone who tries to cause public discontent or revolt. agnostic /ag-naw-stic/ n someone who believes that the existence of God cannot be proved. ago /a-go/ adv in the past (a long time ago). agonizing /a-gon-eye-zing/ adj, also agonising (Br) 1 causing great pain. 2 causing great distress. agony /a-gon-ee/ n 1 great pain (in agony from a gunshot wound). 2 great distress (the agony of divorce). agree /a-gree/ vb 1 to be of the same opinion (agree that everyone should go). 2 to be alike (statements that agree). 3 to suit (a climate that agrees with her). agreeable /a-gree-a-bl/ adj 1 pleasant (an agreeable climate). 2 ready to agree (we were not all agreeable to vote that way). adv agreeably /a-gree-a- blee/. agreement /a-gree-ment/ n 1 sameness of opinion (in agreement about the new plans). 2 likeness (little agreement in their statements). 3 a contract (sign an agreement). agriculture /a-gri-cul-cher/ n the science of cultivating the land, farming. adj agricultural /a-gri-cul-chu-rel/. aground /a-ground/ adj and adv on or onto the sea bed. ahead /a-hed/ adv 1 in front (go on ahead to clear the way). 2 forward, for the future (plan ahead). AI /ay eye/ abbr for artificial intelligence, the study of the capacity of computers to simulate human intelligence. aid /aid/ vb to help. n help. aide /aid/ n, short for aide-de-camp (pl aides-de-camp) an officer in attendance on a king, general or other high official (a White House aide). AIDS, Aids /aidz/ n a condition caused by a virus (HIV)that affects the body’s immune system, greatly reducing resistance to infection (AIDS is an acronym of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). ailing /ay-ling/ adj 1 unwell (his ailing wife). 2 weak (the country’s ailing economy). ailment /ayl-ment/ n a minor health problem. aim /aim/ vb 1 to point a weapon (at). 2 to intend, to try (aim to win). n 1 the act of aiming a weapon. 2 intention, goal, purpose (our aim is to win). aimless /aim-less/ adj without purpose (aimless discussions). air /air/ n 1 the mixture of gases composing the earth’s atmosphere (the air we breathe). 2 a light breeze (the sea air). 3 a tune (play a familiar air). 4 manner (an air of confidence). 5 pl a manner that is not genuine (put on airs). vb 1 to expose to fresh air (air the room by opening the windows). 2 to expose to warm air, to dry (air the laundry). 3 to speak openly about (air your views). air bag /air bag/ n an inflatable safety device in automobiles that inflates on impact to cushion the driver. air-conditioning /air-con-dish-un-ing/ n a system for controlling the temperature and quality of the air in a building. adj air-conditioned /air- con-dish-end/. n air-conditioner /air-con-dish-ner/. aircraft /air-craft/ n (pl aircraft) a flying machine. airfield /air-feeld/ n a starting and landing place for aircraft. airily /air-ill-ee/ adv in an airy manner. airing /air-ing/ n 1 act of exposing to freshor warm air. 2 an outing in the open air. airless /air-less/ adj stuffy. airline /air-line/ n a company providing regular aircraft services. airliner /air-line-er/ n a large passenger aircraft. airmail /air-male/ n a postal service where mail is carried by airplane. airplane /air-plane/ n, also aeroplane (Br) a heavier-than-air flying machine with wings. air pocket /air pock-it/ n a stream of air that carries an aircraft suddenly up or down. airport /air-port/ n a station for passenger aircraft. air raid /air rade/ n an attack by aircraft. airship /air-ship/ n an aircraft kept aloft by a gas-filled balloon and driven by a motor. airtight /air-tite/ adj so sealed that air can pass neither in nor out (preserve fruit in an airtight bottle). airy /ay-ree/ adj 1 with plenty of fresh air (an airy room). 2 lacking seriousness (an airy disregard for authority). aisle /ile/ n 1 the side part of a church, often separated from the central part by a row of pillars. 2 a passage in a church. 3 a passage in a theater or store. ajar /a-jar/ adv partly open (doors left ajar). akimbo /a-kim-bo/ adv with the hand on the hip and the elbow outward (arms akimbo). akin /a-kin/ adj similar (problems akin to ours). alabaster /a-la-bas-ter/ n a soft marble-like stone. alarm /a-larm/ n 1 a warning of danger (hear a burglar alarm). 2 sudden fear (news causing alarm). vb to frighten. alarm clock /a-larm clock/n a clock that can be set to ring or buzz to wake you. alarming /a-larm-ing/ adj frightening. adv alarmingly. alarmist /a-larm-ist/ n someone who needlessly spreads frightening news or rumors. adj causing needless fear. alas /a-las/ interj a cry of grief or pity. albatross /al-ba-tross/ n a large white seabird. albino /al-bee-no/ n a person or animal with white skin and hair and pink eyes because they have no natural coloring. album /al-bum/ n 1 a blank book into which may be put autographs, photographs, stamps, etc. 2 a collection of songs on a CD or other recording (the band’s latest album). alcohol /al-co-hol/ n 1 pure spirit. 2 strong liquor containing such spirit (addicted to alcohol). alcoholic /al-co-hol-ic/ n someone who is addicted to alcohol. adj having to do with alcohol (alcoholic drinks). alcove /al-cove/ n a recess, a section of a room, etc, that is set back from the main part. ale /ale/ n a light-colored, bitter beer. alert /a-lert/ adj 1 attentive (sentries must be alert on duty). 2 quick (mentally alert). n a warning of danger. n alertness. alfalfa /al-fal-fa/ n a green plant used as cattle food. algebra /al-ji-bra/ n a method of calculation in which letters and symbols are used to represent numbers. adj algebraic /al-ji-bray-ic/. alias /ay-lee-ass/ adv otherwise (Fred Jones, alias Martin Smith). n a false name (the alias adopted by the spy). alibi /a-li-buy/ n the plea that you were elsewhere when a crime was committed (establish an alibi). alien /ay-lee-an/ adj 1 foreign (find ourselves in an alien land). 2 different, strange (attitudes that are alien to ours). n 1 a foreigner, a person who is not a naturalized citizen of the country where he or she is living. 2 a being from another world. alienate /ay-lee-an-ate/ vb to make unfriendly (alienate his family with his violence). alight¹ /a-lite/ vb 1 to get down (from) (alight from the bus). 2 to settle upon (butterflies alighting on the leaves). alight² /a-lite/ adj and adv on fire. align /a-line/ vb 1 to put in line, to straighten. 2 to join, ally yourself with (align himself with the enemy). n alignment /a-line-ment/. alike /a-like/ adj like, similar. adv in the same way. alimentary canal /a-li-men-tree ca-nal/ n the passage through the body by which food is received and digested. alimony /a-li-mone-ee/ n the money payable regularly by a man or woman to his or her former spouse after legal separation or divorce. alive /a-laiv/ adj 1 living (wounded soldiers still alive). 2 lively (eyes alive with excitement). 3 aware of (alive to danger). alkali /al-ka-lie/ n a substance such as potash or soda that neutralizes acids and unites with oil or fat to form soap. all /ol/ adj 1 every one of (all the girls). 2 the whole of (all the cake). n 1 everyone (all left). 2 everything (eat it all). adv wholly, entirely. Allah n the Islamic name for God. allay /a-lay/ vb to calm (allay their fears). all-dressed /ol-drest/ adj describing an item of food, such as a pizza or a hot dog, that is topped with all available garnishes. allege /a-ledge/ vb to state without proof. n allegation /a-le-gay-shun/ (can you provide proof of that allegation?). adj alleged /a-ledge-ed/ (the alleged thief sat in the court room). allegiance /a-lee-jance/ n loyalty. allegory /a-li-go-ree/ n a story with a hidden meaning different from the obvious one. adj allegorical /a-li-go-ri-cal/. allegro /a-le-gro/adv (mus) briskly. allergy /a-ler-jee/ n a reaction of the body to some substance (come out in a rash because of an allergy to cats). adj allergic /a-ler-jic/. alleviate /a-lee-vee-ate/ vb to lessen (alleviating pain). n alleviation /a-lee- vee-ay-shun/. alley /a-lee/ n 1 a narrow walk or passage. 2 a lane for bowling. 3 a building containing lanes for bowling. alliance /a-lie-anse/ n a union between families, governments, etc. allied see ally. alligator /a-li-gay-tor/ n a reptile related to the crocodile that is found in North and South America and China. alliteration /a-lit-er-ay-shon/ n the repetition of a sound at the beginning of words especially in poetry, for example, “Peter picked a peck of pickled pepper”. allocate /a-lo-cate/ vb to share out, to distribute (allocating tasks to each of the children). n allocation /a-lo-cay-shon/. allot /a-lot/ vb (allotted, allotting) to give a share, to distribute (allot the money collected to various charities). allotment /a-lot-ment/ n 1 act of allotting. 2 a small piece of land for growing vegetables, etc. allow /al-ow/ vb 1 to permit (allow them to go). 2 to provide, to set aside (allow three hours for the journey). allowable /al-ow-a-bl/ adj permissible. allowance /al-ow-anse/ n a sum of money granted for a special purpose (a dress allowance). make allowance for take into consideration. alloy /a-loy/ n a mixture of metals. all right /ol rite/ (Br) see alright. allude /a-lood/ vb to refer to, to mention (allude to several new developments in his speech). n allusion /a-loo-zhen/. adj allusive /a-loo-siv/. allure /a-loor/ vb to attract (allure them to new jobs with promises of high salaries). n attraction, charm (the allure of the stage). n allurement /a-loor- ment/. adj alluring /a-loor-ing/. allusion see allude. ally /a-lie/ vb to join with another for a special purpose (e.g. by marriage or by treaty) (ally ourselves with the blue team). adj allied /a-lied/. n 1 a helper (one of the President’s closest allies). 2 a nation bound to another by treaty of friendship (a victory for the allies against the enemy). almanac /ol-man-ac/ n, also almanack a book containing a calendar and information about anniversaries, tides, stars, and planets, etc. almighty /ol-mite-ee/ adj 1 (often cap) all-powerful (Almighty God). 2 (inf) very great, strong, loud, etc (an almighty crash). n The Almighty God. almond /a-mond/ n an oval nut. almost /ol-most/ adv nearly (almost midnight/almost at my mother’s house/she almost fell). aloe /a-loe/ n a plant with a bitter juice used in medicines, especially for the skin. aloft /a-loft/ adv high up in the air (hold the flag aloft). aloha /a-loe-ha/ interj a Hawaiian word, meaning love, used to say hello or goodbye. alone /a-lone/ adj and adv 1 without company (live alone/go on vacation alone). 2 taken by itself (money alone is not enough). alongside /a-long-side/ adv and prep by the side of (draw up alongside their car). aloof /a-loof/ adv apart, distant (stand aloof from his friends’ quarreling). adj distant, cool (aloof people who do not make friends). n aloofness. aloud /a-loud/ adv so as can be heard (read aloud). alp /alp/ n a highmountain. alphabet /al-fa-bet/ n the set of letters used in writing a language. adj alphabetical /al-fa-bet-i-cal/ (in alphabetical order). alpine /al-pine/ adj having to do with high mountains, especially the Swiss Alps (alpine plants). already /ol-red-ee/ adv 1 before this time, previously (I have already seen the movie). 2 now or before the expected time (are you leaving already?). alright /ol-rite/ adj 1 acceptable or satisfactory (the show was alright). 2 safe or well (I am feeling alright now). adv an expression of agreement (alright, I will). altar /ol-ter/ n 1 a raised place or table on which sacrifices are offered. 2 a communion table. alter /ol-ter/ vb to change (alter your lifestyle/alter a dress/neighborhoods that have altered). n alteration /ol-te-ray-shun/. alternate /ol-ter-nit/ adj 1 first one coming, then the other (a pattern with alternate squares and circles). 2 every other (visit on alternate Tuesdays). 3 alternative (offer an alternate appointment). vb /ol-ter-nate/ 1 to do, use, cause, arrange, etc, by turns (alternating reading with watching television). 2 to happen by turns (rainy days alternated with dry ones). adv alternately /ol-ter-nate-lee/. n alternation /ol-ter-nay-shun/. alternative /ol-ter-na-tiv/ n 1 a choice between two things (they were told the alternatives are to go or to stay). 2 (inf) a choice of two or more possibilities. adj used instead of something else. adv alternatively /ol-ter-na-tiv-lee/. although /ol-tho/ conj though. altitude /al-te-tood/ n height. alto /al-toe/ n 1 the highest male singing voice. 2 a low female singing voice, properly called contralto /con-tral-toe/. 3 a singer having this voice. Also adj. altogether /ol-te-ge-ther/ adv 1 wholly (not altogether satisfied). 2 including everything ($20 altogether). 3 on the whole (altogether the vacation was a success). altruism /al-troo-izm/ n acting to please others rather than yourself. n altruist /al-troo-ist/. adj altruistic /al-tru-is-tic/. aluminum /a-loo-me-nem/ n, also aluminium /al-yoo-min-ee-em/ (Br) a soft, white, light metal. always /ol-waze/ adv at all times. am /am/ vb the form of the verb be used with “I”. a.m. /ay em/ abbr for ante meridiem, a Latin phrase meaning before midday. amalgam /a-mal-gam/ n a mixture, especially of mercury with another metal. amalgamate /a-mal-ga-mate/ vb to unite, to join together (amalgamate the clubs/the clubs amalgamated). n amalgamation /a-mal-ga-may-shun/. amass /a-mass/ vb to collect a large amount of. amateur /a-ma-ter, a-ma-cher/ n 1 someone who takes part in any activity for the love of it, not for money (a tennis tournament open only to amateurs). 2 a person without skill or expertise in something (repairs carried out by an amateur). n amateurism /a-ma-te-rizm, a-ma-che-rizm. amateurish /a-ma-te-rish, a-ma-che-rish/ adj inexpert, unskillful (his amateurish repair of the fence). amaze /a-maze/ vb to astonish (her rudeness amazed me/amazed by his skill). n amazement /a-maze-ment/. ambassador /am-bass-sa-dor/ n a high-ranking official appointed to represent their government in a foreign country. adj ambassadorial /am- bass-sa-do-ree-al/. amber /am-ber/ n a clear yellowish substance used for ornaments. adj 1 made of amber (amber beads). 2 brownish-yellow (amber eyes). ambidextrous /am-bi-dek-strus/ adj able to do things equally well with either hand. ambiguous /am-bi-gyoo-uss/ adj having more than one meaning (the ambiguous statement left him in doubt). n ambiguity /am-bi-gyoo-e-tee/. ambition /am-bi-shen/ n 1 desire for power, determination to succeed (people of ambition struggling for promotion). 2 a goal, aim (his ambition is to play football for his country). adj ambitious /am-bi-shess/. amble /am-bl/ vb to walk at an easy pace (ambling along although late for school). n 1 an easy pace. 2 a slow walk. n ambler /am-bler/. ambulance /am-byoo-lanss/ n a vehicle for carrying the sick or injured. ambush /am-boosh/ n 1 a body of people so hidden as to be able to make a surprise attack on an approaching enemy. 2 the place where such people hide. 3 a surprise attack made by people in hiding (killed in a terrorist ambush). vb to lie in wait, to attack from an ambush (the soldiers ambushed the convoy of trucks carrying food to the refugees). ameba, amoeba /a-mee-ba/ n (pl amebae, amoebae) a tiny living creature found in water. adj amebic, amoebic /a-mee-bic/. ameliorate /a-meel-ye-rayt/ vb 1 to make better (the new medicine has ameliorated her condition). 2 to grow better (the dreadful weather conditions have ameliorated slightly). n amelioration /a-meel-ye-ray-shun/. amen /ay-men/ interj may it be so; so be it (at the end of the prayer, everyone said “Amen”). amenable /a-mee-na-bl/ adj ready to be guided or influenced (the new managing director is amenable to your suggestions). amend /a-mend/ vb 1 (fml) to change for the better (amend your ways). 2 to correct (amend the author’s manuscript). 3 to alter slightly (amend the law). to make amends to make up for a wrong done (he tried to make amends for his bad behavior with flowers and chocolates). amendment /a-mend-ment/ n 1 an improvement. 2 an alteration (e.g. in a law). amenities /a-mee-ne-tees, a-mee-ne-tees/ npl things that make life easier or more pleasant (the amenities of the town, such as the library, theater, bowling alley, etc). American /a-me-ri-can/ adj 1 describing the United States of America (the American flag). 2 describing North, Central or South America. n 1 a person from the United States of America. 2 a person from North, Central or South America. amethyst /a-me-thest/ n a precious stone of a bluish-violet or purple color. amiable /ay-mee-abl/ adj friendly, pleasant (an amiable young man/in an amiable mood). n amiability /ay-mee-a-bi-li-tee/. amicable /a-mi-ca-bl/ adj friendly (settle the dispute in an amicable way). amid, amidst /a-mid, a-midst/ prep in the middle of, among. amigo n /a-mee-go/ the Spanish word for “male friend”, used informally in English. n amiga female friend. amiss /a-miss/ adv wrong (something amiss). take amiss to take offense at. ammonia /a-mo-nee-a/ n 1 a strong-smelling, colorless gas. 2 a solution of ammonia gas and water (ammonia may be used for cleaning). ammunition /am-ye-ni-shen/ n 1 any projectile, such as a bullet, that can be discharged from a weapon. 2 facts, etc, used against someone in an argument (he came to court armed with plenty of ammunition). amnesia /am-nee-zha/ n loss of memory (a blow to the head caused his amnesia). amnesty /am-ne-stee/ n a general pardon (an amnesty for all political prisoners). among, amongst /a-mong, a-mong-st/ prep 1 in the middle of (a house among the trees). 2 in shares or parts to each person (share the candy among you). 3 in the group of (the best among his novels). amorous /a-mo-rus, am-rus/ adj feeling or expressing love or sexual desire (amorous glances). amount /a-mount/ vb 1 to add up to (bills amounting to $3000). 2 to be equal to (a reply amounting to a refusal). n the sum total. amp see ampere. ampere /am-pir/ n the unit used in measuring electric current, usually shortened to amp. ampersand /am-per-sand/ n a character (&) that stands for “and” (Jones & Son). amphibian /am-fi-bee-an/ n 1 a creature that can live both on land and in water (frogs are amphibians). 2 a vehicle designed to move over land or water. 3 an aircraft that can take off from or land on either land or water. adj amphibious /am-fi-bee-uss/. amphitheater /am-fe-thee-e-ter/n, also amphitheatre (Br) an oval or circular theater or building in which the seats rise in tiers around and above a central stage or arena. ample /am-pl/ adj 1 large (a lady with an ample bosom). 2 enough, sufficient, more than enough (ample time to get there/ample opportunity). amplification see amplify. amplifier /am-ple-fie-er/ n an instrument for making sounds louder. amplify /am-ple-fie/ vb 1 to enlarge (amplify his statement with further details). 2 to make louder. n amplification /am-pli-fee-kay-shun/.amplitude /am-pli-tood/ n size, extent, abundance. amply /am-plee/ adv fully, sufficiently (amply paid). amputate /am-pye-tate/ vb to cut off (a limb). n amputation /am-pye-tay- shon/. amulet /am-ye-let/ n an ornament worn as a charm against evils. amuse /a-myooz/ vb 1 to entertain, to give pleasure (amuse the children by reading to them). 2 to make laugh or smile (amused by the comedian’s jokes). adj amusing /a-myoo-zing/. amusement /a-myooz-ment/ n 1 pleasure, entertainment (play the piano purely for her own amusement). 2 entertainment, pastime (a wide variety of amusements, such as pool, badminton, table tennis). anaconda /a-na-con-da/ n a large snake of South America. anaemia see anemia. anaemic see anemic. anaesthesia see anesthesia. anaesthetic see anesthetic. anaesthetist see anesthetist. anagram /a-na-gram/ n a word or words formed by arranging the letters of a word or phrase in a new order (e.g. mite from time). analog /a-na-log/ n, also analogue (Br) an object, such as a pointer on a dial, used to measure something else. analogous /a-na-lo-gus/ adj similar (in a situation analogous to our own). analogy /a-na-lo-jee/ n 1 likeness (the analogy between the human heart and a pump). 2 the process of reasoning based on such similarity (explain the movement of light as an analogy with that of water). analysis /a-na-li-siss/ n (pl analyses /a-na-li-seez/) 1 the process of analyzing (subject the food to analysis). 2 a statement of the results of this. 3 short for psychoanalysis /sa-ee-co-a-na-li-siss/. adj analytical /a-na-li-ti-cal/. analyst /a-na-list/ n 1 someone who analyzes, especially in chemistry. 2 short for psychoanalyst /sa-ee-co-a-na-list/. analytical see analysis. analyze /a-na-lize/ vb, also analyse (Br) to break a thing up into its parts or elements (analyze the food for signs of poison/analyze the facts and figures). anarchist /a-nar-kist/ n someone who wishes to do away with all government. anarchy /a-nar-kee/ n 1 lawlessness. 2 absence of government. anathema /a-na-the-ma/ n 1 a solemn curse. 2 a thing that is accursed or hateful. 3 something or someone that one detests or strongly disapproves of (bullying is anathema to him). anatomy /a-na-ta-mee/ n 1 the study of the way the body is put together (study anatomy). 2 the cutting up of a body to study its parts and their relation to each other. 3 (often hum) the body (leaving some parts of his anatomy uncovered). adj anatomical /a-na-to-mi-cal/. n anatomist /a-na-to- mist/. ancestor /an-sess-tor/ n forefather, a person from whom you are descended. adj ancestral. ancestry /an-sess-tree/ n line of forefathers. anchor /ang-kor/ n 1 a heavy iron hook that grips the sea bed and holds a ship at rest in the water. 2 a person or thing that provides support, stability or security (his wife was an anchor to him). vb 1 to hold fast by an anchor. 2 to drop an anchor. to weigh anchor to take up an anchor before sailing. anchorage /ang-ko-ridge/ n a place where a ship can anchor. anchovy /an-tcho-vee/ n a small strong-tasting fish of the herring family. ancient /ayn-shent/ adj 1 old, existing since early times (ancient customs). 2 belonging to old times (ancient civilizations). 3 (inf) very old (still wearing that ancient coat). the ancients those who lived long ago, especially the Greeks and Romans. ancillary /ant-si-le-ree/ adj supporting, helping, subsidiary (doctors and ancillary medical staff). andante /an-dan-tay/ adj (mus) with slow and graceful movement. anecdote /a-nec-dote/ n a short, interesting or amusing story about a person or event. anemia /a-nee-mee-a/ n, also anaemia (Br) a condition caused by lack of red corpuscles in the blood, which causes pallor and fatigue. anemic /a-nee-mic/ adj, also anaemic (Br) 1 suffering from anemia. 2 pale, colorless (wearing an anemic shade of pink). 3 lifeless, lacking spirit (an anemic performance). anemone /a-ne-me-nee/ n the wind-flower, a kind of garden plant with red, purple, or white flowers. anesthesia /a-ness-thee-zha/ n, also anaesthesia (Br) loss of feeling. anesthesiologist /a-ness-thee-zee-o-lo-gist/ n, also anaesthesiologist (Br) the doctor in a hospital who gives anesthetics. anesthetic /a-ness-thet-ic/ n, also anaesthetic (Br) a substance that causes loss of feeling for a time, either in the whole body (general anesthetic) or in a limited area of the body, such as a leg (local anesthetic) (given an anesthetic before the operation). Also adj. vb anesthetize /a-nees-the-tize/, also anaesthetise (Br). anesthetist /a-nes-the-tist/ n, also anaesthetist (Br) 1 a nurse who gives anesthetics. 2 (Br) a medical doctor specializing in anesthetics. anew /a-nyoo/ adv (fml or old) again, in a new or different way (begin the attempt anew). angel /ayn-jel/ n 1 in Christianity, a spirit created to serve God (angels are usually shown in pictures with wings and wearing white). 2 a very good and helpful person (she was an angel to lend me the money). adj angelic /an-je- lic/ (the child looked angelic but she was often very naughty). angel food cake /ayn-jel food cake/ n a very light, pale-colored cake. anger /ang-ger/ n a feeling of rage or fury. vb to enrage (angered by his rudeness). angina /an-jie-na/ n a disease of the heart, causing sudden, sharp pains. angle¹ /ang-gl/ n 1 the space between two meeting lines (an angle of 90°). 2 a corner (a room full of angles). 3 point of view (looking at things from the parents’ angle). angle² /ang-gul/ vb 1 to fish with hook and bait. 2 to try to get by indirect means (angle for an invitation). angling /ang-gling/ n the art of fishing with a rod. n angler /ang-gler/. angora /ang-go-ra/ n wool from a long-haired goat. angry /ang-gree/ adj feeling or showing anger (an angry man/angry words). adv angrily /ang-gri-lee/. anguish /ang-guish/ n very great pain, of body or mind (suffer anguish until the lost child was found). adj anguished /ang-guishd/. angular /ang-gyoo-lar/ adj 1 sharp-cornered (an angular building). 2 thin and bony (clothes hanging loosely on her angular body). animal /a-ni-mal/ n 1 a living being with the power to feel and to move at will. 2 such a living being other than human beings (care about animals as well as people). 3 a four-footed creature, as distinct from a bird, fish, or insect. 4 a wild or uncivilized person. animate /a-ni-mate/ vb 1 to give life to. 2 to enliven, to make lively and interesting (need to animate our weekly discussions). adj /a-ni-mit/ living. animation /a-ni-may-shun/ n liveliness, excitement. animosity /a-ni-mo-si-tee/ n strong dislike, hatred (cause animosity between neighbors). ankle /ang-kl/ n the joint that connects the foot with the leg. annex /a-neks/ vb 1 to add to the end (annex a personal note to her report). 2 to take possession of (small countries annexed by the emperor). n, also annexe (Br) a part added to or situated near a building (the school annex). n annexation /a-neks-say-shun/. annihilate /a-nie-e-late/ vb to destroy completely (annihilate the entire army/annihilate their argument). n annihilation /a-ni-hi-lay-shun/. anniversary /an-ni-ver-sa-ree/ n the yearly return of the date on which some event occurred and is remembered (their wedding anniversary/the anniversary of the end of the war). annotate /an-no-tate/ vb to write notes upon. n annotation. announce /a-nounse/ vb to make known (announce their engagement). n announcement /a-nounse-ment/. announcer /a-noun-ser/ n in broadcasting, someone who introduces the programmes or reads news items. annoy /an-noy/ vb to vex; to tease; to be troubled by something you dislike. n annoyance /an-noy-ans/. annual /an-ye-wel/ adj 1 yearly (her annual salary). 2 happening every year or only once a year (an annual festival). n 1 a plant lasting only for one year. 2 a book of which a new edition is published yearly (children’s annuals published for Christmas). adv annually /an-ye-wel-lee/. anoint /a-noint/ vb to put oil on, especially with the intention of making holy. anomaly /a-nom-a-lee/n something unusual, irregular or not normal (a bird with no wings is an anomaly/anomalies in the tax system). adj anomalous /a- nom-a-less/. anon¹ /a-non/ adv (old or hum) soon (see you anon). anon² /a-non/ abbr for anonymous (the author of the poem is anon). anonymous /a-non-ni-muss/ adj nameless, of unknown name (an anonymous donor). n anonymity /a-no-nim-mi-tee/. anorexia /a-ne-rek-see-a/ n an eating disorder in which someone refuses to eat in order to lose weight, although already very thin. adj anorexic /a-ne- rek-sic/. answer /an-ser/ vb 1 to reply to (answer a letter/answer her questions). 2 to be suitable, to fit (answer the firm’s needs/answer the description). 3 to accept blame for or punishment (have to answer for your crimes). 4 to be responsible to (answer to a new boss). n 1 a reply. 2 a solution (to a problem). answerable /an-se-re-bl/ adj open to blame for (answerable for the damage). answering machine /an-se-ring ma-sheen/ n a machine that records telephone messages while someone is out. ant /ant/ n a small, social insect that lives in a colony. antagonism /an-ta-ge-nizm/ n opposition, ill feeling (cause antagonism between the partners). antagonist /an-ta-ge-nist/ n an opponent. antagonistic /an-ta-ge-nis-tic/ adj opposed to, hostile. antagonize /an-ta-ge-nize/ vb, also antagonise (Br) to make an enemy of (antagonize neighbors with noisy behavior). antacid /an-tass-id/ n a medicine that makes the stomach less acidic and relieves pain caused by acid (take an antacid for indigestion). Antarctic /ant-arc-tic/ adj of South Polar regions. anteater /an-tee-ter/ n a mammal with a long snout that feeds on ants and termites. antecedent /an-te-see-dent/ adj (fml) going before (antecedent events). npl antecedents the previous family, history, etc, of a person. antelope /an-te-lope/ n a graceful, delicate animal like the deer. antenatal /an-ti-nay-tal/ adj before birth (antenatal exercises). antenna /an-ten-na/ n 1 (pl antennae /an-ten-nee/) the feeler of an insect. 2 (pl antennas) a wire or rod, etc, for receiving radio waves or television signals. anthem /an-thum/ n a hymn or song of praise to God. anthology /an-tho-le-jee/ n a collection of pieces of poetry or prose by different authors. anthracite /ant-thre-site/ n a type of coal that burns almost without flame or smoke. anthrax /an-thraks/ n a disease attacking sheep or cattle and sometimes infecting humans. anthropology /an-thre-po-le-jee/ n the study of human beings in relation to their surroundings. anti- /an-tie, an-ti/ prefix against. antibiotic /an-ti-bie-o-tic/ n a substance used in medicine to destroy bacteria that cause disease (given an antibiotic to cure a septic throat). Also adj. antibody /an-ti-bo-dee/ n a protein your body produces to fight infections and illnesses (antibodies in the blood). anticipate /an-ti-si-pate/ vb 1 to expect (anticipate trouble at the rally). 2 to take action in advance of (we anticipated their arrival at the camp by getting there first). 3 to foresee (anticipate how they would act). n anticipation /an-ti-se-pay-shun/. anticlimax /an-ti-clie-maks/ n an unexpectedly dull ending to a striking series of events (after the weeks of preparation, the actual festival seemed an anticlimax). antics /an-tiks/ npl absurd or exaggerated behavior (the antics of the clowns). antidote /an-ti-dote/ n a medicine that counteracts the effects of poison or disease (given an antidote when bitten by a snake). antipathy /an-ti-pa-thee/ n dislike, opposition to (feel antipathy toward the man who caused the accident). antiquated /an-te-kway-ted/ adj old-fashioned, out of date (antiquated ideas). antique /an-teek/ adj 1 made in an earlier period and usually valuable (antique furniture). 2 (fml) connected with ancient times. n a piece of furniture, jewelry, etc, made in an earlier period and considered valuable. antiquity /an-ti-kwe-tee/ n 1 ancient times, especially those of the Greeks and Romans. 2 the state of being old or of a great age (an object of great antiquity). antiseptic /an-ti-sep-tic/ adj having the power to kill germs. n an antiseptic substance (clean the wound with an antiseptic). antithesis /an-ti-thi-sis/ n (pl antitheses) 1 contrast of ideas, emphasized by similarity in expressing them. 2 the exact opposite. adj antithetical /an-ti- thet-i-cal/. antler /ant-ler/ n a branch of a stag’s horn. adj antlered. antonym /an-ti-nim/ n a word meaning the opposite of (ugly is the antonym of beautiful). anxious /ang-shus/ adj worried about what will happen or has happened (anxious parents waiting for their lost children/anxious about flying). n anxiety /ang-zie-e-tee/. any /en-ee/ adj 1 one out of many (any of those hats will do). 2 some (do you have any sugar?). 3 every (any mother would be proud of you). adv at all (is it any warmer in there). anybody /en-ee-baw-dee/ pron any person (is anybody there?). anyhow /en-ee-how/ adv 1 in any way whatever (just paint the wall anyhow). 2 in any case (I never liked him anyhow). any more, anymore /en-ee-more/ adv now, from now on (I don’t like it anymore). anyone /en-ee-won/ pron any person, anybody (is anyone there?). anyplace /en-ee-place/ adv in, at, or to anywhere (have you been anyplace special?) anything /en-ee-thing/ pron any object, event, fact etc (he’ll believe anything). n a thing, no matter what kind (have you got anything to polish silver?). adv at all (he doesn’t look anything like his brother) anytime /en-ee-time/ adv at any hour, day, week, etc. (come visit anytime you are passing). anyway /en-ee-way/ adv in any case (I didn’t want to go anyway). adv any way in any manner (go any way you like). anywhere /en-ee-ware/ in, at, or to any place (I can go anywhere). aorta /ae-or-ta/ n the great artery leading from the heart, carrying blood to all parts of the body. apart /a-part/ adv separately (married but now living apart). apartheid /a-part-hide/ n a policy where different races are kept apart (South Africa used to have a racial political policy called apartheid). apartment /a-part-ment/ n 1 a room (the private apartments that cannot be visited in the palace). 2 a set of rooms rented as a dwelling (we have shared an apartment for over a year). apartment house /a-part-ment house/ n a building divided up into apartments (he owns a number of apartment houses in the area). apathy /a-path-ee/ n lack of feeling or interest (people failing to vote in the election because of apathy). adj apathetic /a-pa-thet-ic/. ape /ape/ n a mammal resembling a tailless monkey (e.g. gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon). vb to imitate exactly (she aped the behavior of her older brother). aperture /a-per-choor/ n an opening, a hole (peek through an aperture in the fence). apex /ay-peks/ n (pl apexes or apices) the top or highest point (the apex of the triangle/the apex of his career). aphid /ay-fid/ n an insect that lives on the sap of green plants. aphorism /a-for-iz-um/ n a short, wise saying. apiary /ay-pee-ar-ee/ n a place where bees are kept. apiece /a-peess/ adv to or for each one (plants costing 40 cents apiece). apocalyptic /a-poc-a-lip-tic/ adj 1 telling of great misfortune in the future (apocalyptic warning about the environment). 2 relating to an event of great importance, particularly an event of disastrous or catastrophic importance. apocryphal /a-poc-ra-fal/ adj not likely to be genuine; doubtful or untrue (the stories about his adventures are thought to be apocryphal). apologetic /a-pol-o-je-tic/ adj making excuses, expressing regret (an apologetic refusal to the invitation). apologize /a-pol-o-jize/ vb, also apologise (Br) to express regret for a fault or error, to say you are sorry (apologize for being late). apology /a-pol-o-jee/ n an admission that wrong has been done, an expression of regret. apostle /a-pos-l/ n 1 someone sent to preach the gospel. 2 one of the twelve disciples of Christ. apostrophe /a-pos-tro-fee/ n a mark (’) indicating the possessive case or omission of certainletters. appall /a-pawl/ vb (appalled /a-pawld/, appalling /a-pawl -ing/), also appal (Br) (appals, appalled, appalling) to shock, to horrify (appalled at the state of the starving children). appalling /a-paw-ling/ adj shocking, terrible, horrific. apparatus /a-pa-ra-tus/ n tools or equipment for doing work (gymnastic apparatus/laboratory apparatus). apparel /a-par-el/ n clothing. vb (old) to dress. apparent /a-pa-rent/ adj 1 easily seen, evident (it was apparent that he was very ill/worries that were apparent to everyone). 2 seeming but not necessarily real (her apparent concern for her friend). apparently /a-pa-rent-lee/ adv evidently, seemingly. appeal /a-peel/ vb 1 to make an earnest and strong request for (appeal for money to feed her children). 2 to carry (a law case) to a higher court. 3 to interest, to please (films that appeal to me). Also n. appear /a-peer/ vb 1 to come into sight (figures appearing out of the mist). 2 to seem (she appears sad). n appearance. appease /a-peez/ vb 1 to calm, to make peaceful (appease the angry father by apologizing). 2 to satisfy by giving what is wanted (appease their curiosity). n appeasement. append /a-pend/ vb to add, to attach (append their signatures to the document). appendage /a-pen-dige/ n 1 something added or attached (signatures as appendages to the document). 2 something forming a part or attached to something larger or more important (appendages, as elephants’ trunks). appendicitis /a-pend-ih-sie-tis/ n a painful disease of the appendix, usually requiring surgical removal. appendix /a-pen-diks/ n (pl appendixes or appendices /a-pen-dis-ees/) 1 information added at the end of a book. 2 in your digestive system, a short, closed tube leading off the bowels. appetite /a-pe-tite/ n desire to have something, especially food or pleasure (invalids with little appetite for hospital food/no appetite for love). appetizer /a-pe-tize-er/ n, appetiser also something eaten or drunk to stimulate the appetite (savories served as an appetizer). appetizing /a-pe-tize-ing/ adj increasing the desire for food (appetizing smells from the kitchen). applaud /a-plod/ vb 1 to praise by clapping or shouting (applauded warmly by the audience). 2 to praise. n applause /a-ploz/. apple /a-pl/ n 1 a tree with many varieties, and pink or white blossom. 2 the sweet fruit of this tree. appliance /a-plie-anse/ n an instrument intended for some particular use (modern kitchen appliances). applicable /a-pli-ca-bl/ adj that may be applied, suitable under the circumstances (rules not applicable to the situation). n applicability /a-pli- ca-bi-li-tee/. applicant /a-plic-ant/ n someone who asks for, a person who applies for or makes a formal request for (several applicants for the post). application /a-pli-cay-shon/ n 1 the act of applying. 2 a formal request (make an application for a council grant). 3 perseverance, hard work (application is required to pass the exams). apply /a-ply/ vb 1 to put or spread on (apply the ointment to the wound). 2 to use (apply force). 3 to pay attention (to), to concentrate (apply yourself to your work). 4 to ask for, to put in a formal request for (apply for the post of manager). 5 to concern or be relevant to (the usual rules apply). appoint /a-point/ vb 1 to choose for a job or position (appoint her to the post of manager). 2 (fml) to fix or decide on (appoint a date for the meeting). appointment /a-point-ment/ n 1 a post or position (a teaching appointment). 2 a meeting arranged for a certain time (have several appointments today/a doctor’s appointment). appraisal /a-prase-al/ n the assessment of the value or quality of (give an appraisal of his assistant’s work). appraise /a-prase/ vb to judge the value, quality, ability, etc, of (appraise her suitability for the job). appreciable /a-pree-sha-bl/ adj enough to be noticed (no appreciable difference). adv appreciably. appreciate /a-pree-shee-ate/ vb 1 to recognize the value or good qualities of, to enjoy (appreciate good food). 2 to understand fully, to recognize (I appreciate your concern). 3 to be grateful for (appreciate your kindness). 4 to rise in value (houses appreciating in value). appreciation /a-pree-shee-ay-shon/ n 1 a good or just opinion of (audiences showing their appreciation by applauding). 2 gratitude (in appreciation of his good work). 3 understanding (some appreciation of your problem). 4 increase in value (appreciation of property values). appreciative /a-pree-sha-tive/ adj 1 willing to understand and praise justly (appreciative of good music/an appreciative audience). 2 grateful (appreciative of his kindness). adv appreciatively /a-pree-sha-tive-lee/. apprehend /a-pre-hend/ vb (fml) to arrest, to seize (apprehended by the police). apprehension /a-pre-hen-shon/ n 1 (fml) fear, dread (view the arrival of the new manager with some apprehension). 2 (fml) arrest, seizure (the apprehension of the bank robbers). 3 (fml) understanding (no apprehension of the difficulties involved). apprehensive /a-pre-hen-sive/ adj afraid of what may happen (apprehensive about the exams). apprentice /a-pren-tiss/ n someone who is learning a trade or skill while working at it. vb to bind by agreement to serve as an apprentice. apprenticeship /a-pren-tiss-ship/ n the time served as an apprentice. approach /a-proch/ vb 1 to move nearer (to) (approaching the village/Christmas is approaching). 2 to seek an opportunity to speak to someone (approach him for a donation to the charity). n 1 act of approaching. 2 the way leading to a place. approachable /a-pro-cha-bl/ adj 1 able to be approached (villages not approachable by the road in winter). 2 easy to speak to (he’s unfriendly and not at all approachable). approbation /a-pro-bay-shon/ n praise, approval. appropriate /a-pro-pree-ate/ vb 1 to take and use as your own (appropriate the firm’s money). 2 to set apart for a particular purpose or use (money appropriated by the government for training). adj suitable. adv appropriately /a-pro-pree-ate-lee/. n appropriation /a-pro-pree-ay-shun/, appropriateness /a-pro-pree-ate-ness/. approve /a-proov/ vb 1 to think well of, to accept as good (approve of your choice). 2 to agree to, to accept (approve the application). n approval /a- proov-al/. on approval for a period of trial before purchase. approximate /a-prok-si-mat/ vb to come near to (a story approximating to the truth). adj nearly correct (an approximate price). approximately /a-prok-si-mat-lee/ adv nearly (approximately 9 o’clock/approximately four miles). approximation /a-prok-si-may-shon/ n a nearly correct result (the figure is an approximation). apricot /ay-pri-cot, a-pri-cot/ n an orange-yellow fruit of the peach family. April /ay-pril/ n the fourth month of the year. apron /ay-pron/ n a garment or cloth worn in front to protect the clothes. apt /apt/ adj 1 suitable, appropriate (an apt reply). 2 ready to learn (an apt pupil). 3 having a tendency to (a car that is apt to break down). aptly /apt-lee/ adv appropriately. aptitude /ap-ti-tood/ n skill, cleverness (an aptitude for foreign languages). aptness /apt-ness/ n suitability (the aptness of the remark). aquarium /a-kwa-ree-um/ n (pl aquariums or aquaria) a tank for (live) fish and water animals and water plants. aquatic /a-kwa-tic/ adj 1 living or growing in water (aquatic plants). 2 taking place in water (aquatic sports). aqueduct /a-kwi-duct/ n 1 a man-made channel for carrying water. 2 a bridge built to carry water. aqueous /a-kwee-us/ adj of or like water, watery (an aqueous solution). aquiline /a-kwi-leen/ adj hooked like the beak of an eagle (an aquiline nose). Arab /a-rab/ n a native of Arabia. adj describing Arabia or the Arabs. Arabic /a-ra-bic/ n a language spoken by people in North Africa and Middle Eastern countries. adj describing the language and the countries in which Arabic is spoken. Arabic numerals /a-ra-bic noo-mer-als/ n the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. arable /a-ra-bl/ adj suitable for plowing. arbiter

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